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APA - Referencing Guide

Legal Materials

Examples

Quoting

Quotations must be identical to the original, using a small section of the source. Quotes match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author. When quoting, the relevant page number(s) must be given.

If less than 40 words, quotations should be incorporated into the text of your essay or assignment and enclosed within quotation marks. 

If 40 or more words, then the quotation should be indented as a block of text and the quotation marks omitted. In this instance, the citation, in full or part form, appears after the final punctuation mark.

If information is left out, three dots ... must be used to show where the missing information goes.

 

Paraphrasing and Summarising

Both paraphrasing and summarising involve putting information from source material into your own words.

The following is an example of how to appropriately paraphrase and summarise to avoid plagiarism:

As stated in the seventh edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2020), the ethical principles of scientific publication are designed to ensure the integrity of scientific knowledge and to protect the intellectual property rights of others. As the Publication Manual explains, authors are expected to correct the record if they discover errors in their publications; they are also expected to give credit to others for their prior work when it is quoted or paraphrased (pp. 254-257).

 

More detailed information is on the APA Citation Methods page.

Reported cases in a series organised by volume

In Text Citation
(King v Philcox (2015)) OR King v Philcox (2015)

Reference List
King v Philcox (2015) 255 CLR 304. https://www-westlaw-com-au.libproxy.murdoch.edu.au/maf/wlau/app/document?docguid=I8c671df0140c11e69e0fd18d932f6e2c&tocDs=AUNZ_CASES_TOC&isTocNav=true&startChunk=1&endChunk=1

 

Reported cases in a series organised by year

In Text Citation
(Mond v Lipshut (1999))  OR  Mond v Lipshut (1999)

Reference List
Mond v Lipshut [1999] 2 VR 342. https://www-westlaw-com-au.libproxy.murdoch.edu.au/maf/wlau/app/document?docguid=I3c5e261065c311e6881a84759648e093&tocDs=AUNZ_CASES_TOC&isTocNav=true&startChunk=1&endChunk=1

In Text Citation

(Linton, 2015)

 

Reference List

Linton, S. H. (2015). Record of investigation into death [of Helen MacFarlaine] (Ref. no. 10/15). Coroner’s Court of Western Australia. https://www.coronerscourt.wa.gov.au/_files/MacFarlaine%20finding.pdf

Constitution

In Text Citation

The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia may be cited as the 

Australian Constitution

OR   

Commonwealth Constitution

OR   

Constitution if there is no ambiguity as to which constitution is being cited

Reference List
The Constitution (Cth). https://www.legislation.gov.au//Details/C2005Q00193

Commonwealth Statutes (Acts of Parliament)

In Text Citation

Example 1:

(Corporations Act 2001 (Cth), s. 1) 

(Corporations Act 2001 (Cth), s. 1; s. 2; s. 3) 

(Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander Act 2005 (Cth) pt. 3A div. 2)  

 

Example 2:

Section 1 of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) states ...

(Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth), sch. 2: The Australian Consumer Law, pt. 3-2, s. 64)

 

Reference List
 

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). https://www.legislation.gov.au//Details/C2019C00216

Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth). https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2020C00006

 

State Statutes (Acts of Parliament)

In Text Citation
(Land Tax Act 2002, s. 1) OR (Land Tax Act 2002 (WA), s. 1)

(Criminal Code Act 1983 (NT), pt. I div. 1)

Reference List
Land Tax Act 2002 (WA). https://www.legislation.wa.gov.au/legislation/statutes.nsf/law_a6340.html

Criminal Code Act 1983 (NT). https://legislation.nt.gov.au/Legislation/CRIMINAL-CODE-ACT-1983

Short abbreviations for jurisdictions

Commonwealth (Cth)

Australian Capital Territory (ACT)

New South Wales (NSW)

Northern Territory (NT)

Queensland (Qld)

South Australia (SA)

Tasmania (Tas)

Victoria (Vic)

Western Australia(WA)


Abbreviations for subdivisions

chapter(s)          ch., chs.
section(s)           s., ss.
schedule(s)        sch., schs.
part(s)                pt., pts.
division(s)          div., divs.
subdivision(s)     sub-div., sub-divs.
paragraph(s)      para., paras.

Where multiple abbreviations and numbers are needed, no comma should be used between them e.g.   pt. III div. 3

In references to a section or a subsection (or a paragraph and a sub-paragraph, etc) the abbreviation that corresponds to the highest 'level' of the section (or paragraph, etc) in the pinpoint should be used  (eg 's. 31 (1)'  not  'sub-s. 31(1)').


Pinpoint reference examples

s. 2 s. 108AB sub-s. (3)
pt. V s. 5(1) s. 2(3)
ch. III s. 14(1)(a) s. 28(1)(a)(i)
pt. 7 div. 3 sub-div. 8 s. 13   [Not: pt. 2 s. 13] cl. 14(3)(a)

 

Where an Act uses a decimal numbering system (often in the form  Chapter . Part . Section ), pinpoints should contain the whole of the decimal number preceded by the abbreviation of the lowest 'level' of section, part, chapter, etc, cited (eg  s. 2.3.5   not  ch. 2.3.5 ).

 

Where multiple combinations of an abbreviation and a number are needed to form one pinpoint reference, there should be no comma between each abbreviation-number combination  (eg  pt III div 2   not  pt III, div 2 ).

Bills

In Text Citation
(Trade Practices Amendment (Australian Consumer Law) Bill (No. 2) 2010 (Cth), cl. 7.10)

OR   

As found in the Trade Practices Amendment (Australian Consumer Law) Bill (No. 2) (2010, cl. 7.10) ...

Reference List

Trade Practices Amendment (Australian Consumer Law) Bill (No. 2) 2010 (Cth). https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2010B00061

Short abbreviations for jurisdictions

Commonwealth (Cth)

Australian Capital Territory (ACT)

New South Wales (NSW)

Northern Territory (NT)

Queensland (Qld)

South Australia (SA)

Tasmania (Tas)

Victoria (Vic)

Western Australia(WA)

Explanatory Memorandum

In Text Citation
(Explanatory Memorandum, Trade Practices Amendment (Australian Consumer Law) Bill (No. 2) 2010 (Cth), p. 179)

Reference List
Explanatory Memorandum, Trade Practices Amendment (Australian Consumer Law) Bill (No. 2) 2010 (Cth). https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2010B00061/Explanatory%20Memorandum/Text

Second Reading Speeches (Parliamentary debates)

In Text Citation
In the Minister's Second Reading Speech (Commonwealth, 2010, p. 4284), provisions covering unfair practices ... 

Reference List
Commonwealth. Parliamentary debates. Senate. 24 June 2010. https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/genpdf/chamber/hansards/2010-06-24/0103/hansard_frag.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf

Delegated legislation (Regulations)

In Text Citation

(Competition and Consumer Regulations 2010 (Cth), reg. 90.)

Reference List
Competition and Consumer Regulations 2010 (Cth). https://www.legislation.gov.au//Details/F2019C00785

Reference List

Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. (2017). Understanding the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women and girls: A joint project with the Australian Human Rights Commission [Report]. Australian Government. https://pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/factsheet-supporting-indigenous-women-girls.pdf

Environmental and Natural Resources Committee, Parliament of Victoria. (2011). Inquiry into the environmental effects statement process in Victoria [Parliamentary Paper No 59]. https://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/images/stories/committees/enrc/FINAL_EES_Report_30_August_2011.pdf

Mental Health Integration Taskforce. (2019). Better integration of mental health services in Southern Tasmania: Mental Health Integration Taskforce report and recommendations. Mental Health, Alcohol and Drug Directorate, Department of Health, Tasmanian Government. https://www.dhhs.tas.gov.au/news/2019/mental_health_integration_taskforce_report

National Drug Strategy Committee. (2020, May). National drug strategy 2017-2026 : 2018 Annual report. Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/resources/publications/national-drug-strategy-2018-annual-report

Parliament of Western Australia Joint Standing Committee on the Corruption and Crime Commission. (2020). Evidence by.. Mr Chris Dawson (Commissioner of Police, Western Australia Police Force), Mr Colin Blanch (Deputy Commissioner of Police, Western Australia Police Force), Mr Chris Markham (Capability Adviser, Use of Force, Operational Skills Faculty, Western Australian Police Force), Mr Valdo Sorgiovanni (Acting Assistant Commissioner, Professional Standards, Western Australia Police Force) and Mr Craig Donaldson (Assistant Commissioner, Professional Development, Western Australia Police Force) on 1 Jul 2020 at the Inquiry into the Western Australian Corruption and Crime Commission's oversight of police misconduct investigations, particularly allegations of excessive use of force [Transcript]. Parliament of Western Australia. https://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/Parliament/commit.nsf/(Evidence+Lookup+by+Com+ID)/ECD4A50B247A7D104825859A00132920/$file/ccc200701.pdf

Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee, Parliament of Australia. (2006). Administration and Operation of the Migration Act 1958 [Report]. https://www.aph.gov.au/~/media/wopapub/senate/committee/legcon_ctte/completed_inquiries/2004_07/migration/report/report_pdf.ashx

Senate Standing Committee for the Scrutiny of Bills, Parliament of Australia. (2016). Tenth Report of 2016 [Report]. Senate Printing Unit. https://www.aph.gov.au/~/media/Committees/Senate/committee/scrutiny/bills/2016/pdf/b10.pdf?la=en

Western Australia Police Force. (2020, July 1). Evidence at the hearing of the Inquiry into the Western Australian Corruption and Crime Commission's oversight of police misconduct investigations, particularly allegations of excessive use of force [Video]. Joint Standing Committee on the Corruption and Crime Commission, Parliament of Western Australia. http://203.26.91.201/la%20archive/LACO%202020/20200701%20-%2010.15%20am.mp4

 

 

Hansard:

Commonwealth. Parliamentary debates. Senate. 9 August 2021. 1. https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/chamber/hansards/e33ce5a8-c004-49ca-83f9-8786f3f1aa3d/toc_pdf/Senate_2021_08_09_9017.pdf;fileType%3Dapplication%2Fpdf#search=%22climate%20change%20waters%22

Do Not Reference Tertiary Materials

Sources such as dictionaries and encyclopaedia, are NOT considered acceptable material upon which to base academic legal research,
so should NOT be included in Reference Lists for Murdoch University Students.

Students should source the original quotation using the citation that is referenced in encyclopaedia articles.

In Text Citation

(Freckelton & Prizeman, 2019)

 

Reference List

Freckelton, I., & Prizeman, W. (2019). Impact on a victim is a relevant factor in determining sentences. In The Laws of Australia.  Westlaw AU. http://libproxy.murdoch.edu.au/login?url=http://www.westlaw.com.au/maf/app/link/toc?cs=AUNZ_AU_ENAULAW

 

United Nations materials

Official/legal documents, such as resolutions, treaties, Charter of the United Nations, official reports or records should follow AGLC Rules 8 (Treaties) or 9 (United Nations Materials).

Other documents should be cited as per their format: Internet/website material, journal articles, press releases, publications, etc..

The UN provides information on how to reference its documents.
Wherever it mentions The Bluebook (U.S. legal referencing rules), replace this with the relevant AGLC rule.

General Instructions for Referencing UN material:

  1. Give the author or organisation responsible for the document, followed by a full stop
  2. Enclose the date of publication in brackets (or the date of signing a treaty), followed by a full stop
  3. Italicise the title of the document, followed by a full stop
  4. Give the URL or web address where you accessed the document

Examples:

In Text Citation

(United Nations, 1948)

Reference List Entry

United Nations. (1948, December 10) Universal declaration of human rights. https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/

 

In Text Citation

(United Nations, 1989)

Reference List Entry

United Nations. (1989, November 20). Convention on the rights of the child (Treaty Series, 1577). https://www.unicef.org/child-rights-convention/convention-text#

 

In Text Citation

(United Nations, 1966)

Reference List Entry

United Nations. (1966, December 19). International covenant on civil and political rights (999 UNTS 171). https://treaties.un.org/doc/publication/unts/volume%20999/volume-999-i-14668-english.pdf

Subsequent citations

In Text Citation

(Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth), sch. 2: The Australian Consumer Law (ACL), pt. 3-2, sub-div. 64)
     - this allows for subsequent references as ACL

(Trade Practices Amendment (Australian Consumer Law) Bill (No. 2) 2010) (Cth) (ACL Bill), cl. 7.10)
     - this allows for subsequent references as ACL Bill 

(Explanatory Memorandum, Trade Practices Amendment (Australian Consumer Law) Bill (No. 2) 2010) (ACL EM)
     - this allows for subsequent references as ACL EM 

Information

In the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020), Chapter 11, Legal References advises:

"In this chapter, we provide ... examples of common legal references used in APA style papers, including court decisions, statutes, legislative materials... For brevity, only United States and United Nations legal examples are provided in this chapter." (p. 355).

For this reason, all students, when asked to cite Australian legal materials using APA Style, should follow the examples given in the table.
For further examples refer to the AGLC - Referencing Guide.