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APA - Referencing Guide

Sample Reference List

Formatting Your Reference List

All documents cited in your assignment must be listed in a single alphabetical list at the end of the assignment.

The list is arranged by the author's surname, or title if no author is given.

Only the author's initials are included regardless of the presentation of the author's name in the source document. The given name may be cited in full if it is needed to correctly identify the author, for example, where different authors have the same surname and initials.

Include the names of all authors unless the authors number eight or more, in this case include the first six authors' names, then insert three ellipses and follow with the final author's name.

Authors' names are given in the order in which they appear on the source document - do not rearrange the names of the authors of a multi-authored work into alphabetical order.

Capitalisation practice also should be consistent.

Titles and subtitles of journal articles, book parts and book titles are given minimal capitalisation. Only the first letter of the first word of the title (and subtitle, if given) and those words that normally have an initial capital (proper nouns) are capitalised.

Journal titles are given maximal capitalisation. All words other than prepositions, conjunctions, and definite and indefinite articles (a, an, the) are capitalised.

Journal and book titles are italicised when typed or underlined when handwritten.

A hanging indent for each reference makes the alphabetical sequence more obvious.

An Example




American Educational Research Association. (1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Angus, J. (2006). Gorilla, Gorilla, Gorilla [wood veneers, nylon]. Perth: Art Gallery of Western Australia.
Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care. (1999). Mental health: A report focusing on depression, 1998. Canberra, ACT: AGPS.
Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care. (2000). National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy. Retrieved from
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1997). Mental health and wellbeing: Profile of adults, Western Australia (cat. no. 4326.5). Retrieved from AusStats:
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (1999). Australia's young people: Their health and wellbeing, the report on the health of young people aged 12-24 years. Canberra, ACT: AIHW.
Bedford, P. (2001). Dingo dreaming [ochre on canvas]. Reproduced in McCulloch, S., & McCulloch Childs, E. (2008). McCulloch's contemporary Aboriginal art : The complete guide (p.154). Fitzroy, Vic: McCulloch & McCulloch Australian Art Books.
Bickman, L., & Ellis, H. (Eds.). (1990). Preparing psychologists for the 21st century: Proceedings of the National Conference on Graduate Education in Psychology, 1988, University of Utah. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum.
The Blackwell dictionary of cognitive psychology. (1991). Oxford, England: Blackwell.
Bolton, G. C. (Speaker). (1975). Towards an Australian environmental history [Cassette recording]. Perth, WA: Media Services, Murdoch University.
Bond, L., Carlin, J. B., Thomas, L., Rubin, K., & Patton, G. (2001). Does bullying cause emotional problems? A prospective study of young teenagers. BMJ, 323, 480-484. doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7311.480
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.78.3.443
Colclough, B., & Colclough, J. (1999). A challenge to change. London, England: Thorsons.
Depression (psychology) (2001). In Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2002. Retrieved from

Evans, R. (1973). Labor market information in Japanese labor markets. In Industrialization and manpower policy in Asian countries: Proceedings of the Regional Conference on Industrial Relations, Tokyo, Japan, 1973 (pp. 157-72). Tokyo: Japan Institute of Labour.

Flower, R. (2015, June 1). How a simple formula for resolving problems and conflict can change your reality [Blog post]. Pick The Brain. Retrieved from

French, L. A. (1986). Cognitive consequences of education: transfer of training in the elderly (Ph.D. thesis - University of Illinois, 1980). [Microform]. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International.
Goldberg, I. (2000). Dr. Ivan's depression central. Retrieved from
Google Maps. (2015, February 5). The British Library, London, UK.  Google. Retrieved from,-0.127676,17z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x48761b3b70171395:0x18905479de0fdb25
Heimans, R. (1996). Gloves Off (Tom Uren) [oil paint on canvas]. Canberra: National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved from
How to cite references. (1996). Retrieved from Murdoch University Library website:
Kessel, M. (Director). (1995). The Making of a Monologue: Robert Wilson's Hamlet [video,1:02:18 mins]. New York: Cinema Guild. Retrieved January 29, 2015, from Theatre in Video.
Kissane, K. (1998, September 5). Kiss or kill: Who is the victim when a battered woman kills? The Age: Extra, p. 6.
Kubler-Ross, E. (1993a). AIDS: The ultimate challenge. New York, NY: Collier Books.
Kubler-Ross, E. (1993b). Questions and answers on death and dying. New York, NY: Collier Books.
Lampathakis, P. (1997, August 11). Tantrums seen as suicide warning. The West Australian, p. 26. Retrieved November 21, 2001, from Factiva.
Leunig, M. (1995, July 27). Thoughts of a baby lying in a child care centre. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 24.
Mandl, H., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). Learning and instruction: European research in an international context (Vol. 2). Oxford, UK: Pergamon.
Matthews, J. (1999). The art of childhood and adolescence: The construction of meaning. London, England: Falmer Press.
Mental disorders and their treatment. (1987). In The new encyclopaedia Britannica (5th ed., Vol. 23, pp. 956-975). Chicago, IL: Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Milnes, G. M. (1998). Adolescent depression: The use of generative instruction to increase rational beliefs and decrease irrational beliefs and depressed mood. Unpublished M.Appl.Psy. thesis, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia.

Murdoch University Library. (2017, February 22). In a dedication ceremony on Tuesday, Murdoch University celebrated the naming of the Library after eminent historian and Murdoch icon, the late Emeritus Professor Geoffrey Bolton [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from

Newbold, C. R. (2014). Can I Use that Picture? The Terms, Laws, and Ethics for Using Copyrighted Pictures. The Visual Communication Guy. Retrieved from
Newcomb, H. (Ed.). (2000). Television: The critical view (6th ed). New York: Oxford University Press.
The pain of being a caffeine freak. (2001, October 6). New Scientist, 172(2311), 27.
Parker, G., & Roy, K. (2001). Adolescent depression: A review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 572-580.
Patton, G. C., et al. (1996). Is smoking associated with depression and anxiety in teenagers? American Journal of Public Health, 86, 225+. Retrieved November 20, 2001, from ProQuest.
Payne, S. (1976). 'Dangerous and different': reconstructions of madness in the 1990s and the role of mental health policy. In Watson, S. & L. Doyal (Eds.), Engendering social policy (pp.180-195). Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.
Rosenthal, R., Rosnow, R. L., & Rubin, D. B. (2000). Contrasts and effect sizes in behavioral research: A correlational approach. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Russell, B. (1967). The autobiography of Bertrand Russell (Vols. 1-3). London, England: Allen & Unwin.

Russell, G. (Writer, Producer and Narrator), & Wiseman, P. (Producer). (1995). Tackling bullies: An Australian perspective [Video recording]. Melbourne, VIC: Video Classroom.

Setrakian, L. (2017, January). Lara Setrakian: 3 ways to fix a broken news industry. [Video file]. Retrieved from broken_news_industry#t-521404

Snyder, C. R. (Ed.). (1999). Coping: The psychology of what works. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

StudentVIP. (2017). Lost on Campus (Version 4.1.3) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from

Western Australia. Office of Citizenship and Multicultural Interests. (2000). 2000 migrant services directory: A Western Australian guide for migrants and service providers. Perth, WA: Office of Citizenship and Multicultural Interests.