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APA - Referencing Guide

Sample Reference List

Formatting Your Reference List

All documents cited in your assignment must be listed in a single alphabetical list at the end of the assignment.

The list is arranged by the author's surname, or title if no author is given.

Only the author's initials are included regardless of the presentation of the author's name in the source document. The given name may be cited in full if it is needed to correctly identify the author; for example, where different authors have the same surname and initials.

Include the names of all authors unless the authors number more than twenty, in this case include the first nineteen authors' names, then insert three ellipses and follow with the final author's name.

Authors' names are given in the order in which they appear on the source document - do not rearrange the names of the authors of a multi-authored work into alphabetical order.

Capitalisation practice should be consistent.

Titles and subtitles of journal articles, book parts and book titles are given minimal capitalisation. Only the first letter of the first word of the title (and subtitle, if given) and those words that normally have an initial capital (proper nouns) are capitalised.

Journal titles are given maximal capitalisation. All words other than prepositions, conjunctions, and definite and indefinite articles (a, an, the) are capitalised.

Journal and book titles are italicised when typed, or underlined when handwritten.

A hanging indent for each reference makes the alphabetical sequence more obvious.

An Example




American Educational Research Association. (1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. American Psychological Association.
Angus, J. (2006). Gorilla, gorilla, gorilla [wood veneers, nylon]. Art Gallery of Western Australia.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1997). Mental health and wellbeing: Profile of adults, Western Australia (cat. no. 4326.5).
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (1999). Australia's young people: Their health and wellbeing, the report on the health of young people aged 12-24 years.
Balakrishnan, R. (2006, March 25-26). Why aren't we using 3d user interfaces, and will we ever? [Paper presentation].  IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces, Alexandria, VA.
Bedford, P. (2001). Dingo dreaming [ochre on canvas]. Reproduced in McCulloch, S., & McCulloch Childs, E. (2008). McCulloch's contemporary Aboriginal art: The complete guide (p.154). Fitzroy, Vic: McCulloch & McCulloch Australian Art Books.
The Blackwell dictionary of cognitive psychology. (1991). Blackwell.
Bolton, G. C. (Speaker). (1975). Towards an Australian environmental history [Speech audio recording]. Media Services, Murdoch University.
Bond, L., Carlin, J. B., Thomas, L., Rubin, K., & Patton, G. (2001). Does bullying cause emotional problems? A prospective study of young teenagers. BMJ, 323, 480-484.
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449.
Colclough, B., & Colclough, J. (1999). A challenge to change. Thorsons.
Delalande, J. (2019, October 26). Our teens struggle the most. The West Australian, p. 32. Factiva.!?&_suid=1576141953014019681669927131606
Department of Health and Aged Care. (1999). Mental health: A report focusing on depression, 1998. Commonwealth of Australia.
Department of Health and Aged Care. (2000). National youth suicide prevention strategy. Australian Government.
Flower, R. (2015, June 1). How a simple formula for resolving problems and conflict can change your reality. Pick The Brain.
Goldberg, I. (2000). Dr. Ivan's depression central.
Google Maps. (2015, February 5). The British Library, London, UK.  Google.,-0.127676,17z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x48761b3b70171395:0x18905479de0fdb25
Heimans, R. (1996). Gloves off (Tom Uren) [oil paint on canvas]. Canberra: National Portrait Gallery.
How to cite references. (1996). Murdoch University Library.
Kessel, M. (Director). (1995). The making of a monologue: Robert Wilson's Hamlet [Video, 1:02:18 mins]. Cinema Guild.
Kissane, K. (1998, September 5). Kiss or kill: Who is the victim when a battered woman kills? The Age: Extra, p. 6.
Kubler-Ross, E. (1993a). AIDS: The ultimate challenge. New York, NY: Collier Books.
Kubler-Ross, E. (1993b). Questions and answers on death and dying. New York, NY: Collier Books.
Leunig, M. (1995, July 27). Thoughts of a baby lying in a child care centre. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 24.
Mandl, H., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). Learning and instruction: European research in an international context (Vol. 2). Pergamon.
March, E., & Springer, J. (2019). Belief in conspiracy theories: The predictive role of schizotypy, Machiavellianism, and primary psychopathy. PLoS One, 14(12): Article e0225964.
Matthews, J. (1999). The art of childhood and adolescence: The construction of meaning. Falmer Press.
Mental disorders and their treatment. (1987). In The new encyclopaedia Britannica (5th ed., Vol. 23, pp. 956-975). Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Milnes, G. M. (1998). Adolescent depression: The use of generative instruction to increase rational beliefs and decrease irrational beliefs and depressed mood [Unpublished M.Appl.Psy. thesis]. Murdoch University.
Murdoch University Library. (2017, February 22). In a dedication ceremony on Tuesday, Murdoch University celebrated the naming of the Library after eminent historian and Murdoch icon, the late Emeritus Professor Geoffrey Bolton [Status update]. Facebook.
Newbold, C. R. (2014). Can I use that picture? The terms, laws, and ethics for using copyrighted pictures. The Visual Communication Guy.
Newcomb, H. (Ed.). (2000). Television: The critical view (6th ed). Oxford University Press.
The pain of being a caffeine freak. (2001, October 6). New Scientist, 172(2311), 27.
Parker, G., & Roy, K. (2001). Adolescent depression: A review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 572-580.
Payne, S. (1976). 'Dangerous and different': reconstructions of madness in the 1990s and the role of mental health policy. In Watson, S. & L. Doyal (Eds.), Engendering social policy (pp.180-195). Open University Press.
Roemmele, M. (2018). Neural networks for narrative continuation (Publication No. 22621448) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
Rosenthal, R., Rosnow, R. L., & Rubin, D. B. (2000). Contrasts and effect sizes in behavioral research: A correlational approach. Cambridge University Press.
Russell, B. (1967). The autobiography of Bertrand Russell (Vols. 1-3). Allen & Unwin.
Russell, G. (Writer, Producer and Narrator), & Wiseman, P. (Producer). (1995). Tackling bullies: An Australian perspective [Video recording]. Video Classroom.
Setrakian, L. (2017, January). Lara Setrakian: 3 ways to fix a broken news industry. [Video]. broken_news_industry#t-521404
Snyder, C. R. (Ed.). (1999). Coping: The psychology of what works. Oxford University Press.
StudentVIP. (2017). Lost on Campus (Version 4.1.3) [Mobile app]. Apple App Store.
Western Australia. Office of Citizenship and Multicultural Interests. (2000). 2000 migrant services directory: A Western Australian guide for migrants and service providers.