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APA - Referencing Guide

A-V Materials


Standard format for citation

Title of Programme: Subtitle [format]. Publisher. (Year of recording if different from year of copyright).


Standard format for YouTube/Vimeo video citation

Title of video: Subtitle [Video file]. URL



Moore, M. (Writer/Director). (2003). Bowling for Columbine [DVD]. AV Channel.

Radio programme

Browning, D. (Presenter). (2006, June 9). Black soccer heroes. Message Stick [Radio programme]. Guest speaker Dr. John Maynard. ABC Radio.

Audio recordings

Bolton, G. C. (Speaker). (1975). Towards an Australian environmental history [Speech audio recording]. Media Services, Murdoch University.

St. Laurance Chamber Choir (Performers), & McEwan, N. (Director). (2005). Commemoration, ritual and performance: the Iberian connection : medieval and renaissance music from the St Laurence Chamber Choir [Album]. Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney.


French, L. A. (1986). Cognitive consequences of education: transfer of training in the elderly (Ph.D. thesis - University of Illinois, 1980) [Microform]. University Microfilms International.


Robertson, R. (Speaker). (2010). Leadership at the bottom of the earth…where no one hears you scream, 2010 Sir Walter Murdoch lecture [Audio podcast]. Murdoch University.

Podcast lecture from LMS

Hill, D. (Speaker). (2012, April 4). Australian media representation of Asia [Audio podcast]. In Australia in Asia (FDN 110). Murdoch University.

Podcast radio programme

Gary, S. (Host). (2007, December 23). Black hole death ray. StarStuff [Audio podcast]. ABC News Radio.

Podcast television programme

Brown, W. (Host)., Brodie, K. (Host)., & George, P. (Producer). (2007, June 4). From Lake Baikal to the halfway mark, Yekaterinburg. Peking to Paris: Episode 3 [Video podcast]. ABC Television.

Television series episode

Masters, C. (Presenter). (2006, March 27). Big fish, little fish. Four Corners [Television series episode]. ABC Television.

Video recording

Russell, G. (Writer, Producer and Narrator), & Wiseman, P. (Producer). (1995). Tackling bullies: An Australian perspective [Video recording]. Video Classroom.

YouTube/Vimeo video

NRK. (2007, February 26). Medieval helpdesk with English subtitles. [Video].

See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, a-v material, books, and web pages.