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APA - Referencing Guide

A-V Materials


Standard format for citation

Title of Programme: Subtitle [format]. Place of recording: Publisher. (Year of recording if different from year of copyright).


Standard format for YouTube/Vimeo video citation

Title of video: Subtitle [Video file]. Retrieved from internet address of specific video



Moore, M. (Writer/Director). (2003). Bowling for Columbine [DVD]. Melbourne, VIC: AV Channel.

Radio programme

Browning, D. (Presenter). (2006, June 9). Black soccer heroes. Message Stick [Radio programme]. Guest speaker Dr. John Maynard. Sydney, NSW: ABC Radio.

Sound recordings

Bolton, G. C. (Speaker). (1975). Towards an Australian environmental history [Cassette recording]. Perth, WA: Media Services, Murdoch University.

St. Laurance Chamber Choir (Performers), & McEwan, N. (Director). (2005). Commemoration, ritual and performance: the Iberian connection : medieval and renaissance music from the St Laurence Chamber Choir [CD]. Sydney, NSW: Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney.

Television programme

Masters, C. (Presenter). (2006, March 27). Big fish, little fish. Four Corners [Television programme]. Sydney, NSW: ABC Television.

Video recording

Russell, G. (Writer, Producer and Narrator), & Wiseman, P. (Producer). (1995). Tackling bullies: An Australian perspective [Video recording]. Melbourne, VIC: Video Classroom.


French, L. A. (1986). Cognitive consequences of education: transfer of training in the elderly (Ph.D. thesis - University of Illinois, 1980) [Microform]. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International.

YouTube/Vimeo video

NRK. (2007, February 26). Medieval helpdesk with English subtitles. [Video file]. Retrieved from