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APA - Referencing Guide


Standard APA Abbreviations

Standard abbreviations may be used in your citations.

A list of acceptable, commonly used abbreviations can be found in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., p. 180.

Some of the more often used examples are listed here:


Chapter chap.


Editor(s) Ed.(Eds.)

et alii, et aliae (and others) - from Latin

et al.
No date of publication n.d.
Number No.
Page(s) p. (pp.)
Paragraph para.
Part Pt.
Revised edition Rev. ed
Supplement Suppl.
Technical Report Tech. Rep.
Translator(s) Trans.
Volume (as in Vol. 4) Vol.
Volumes (as in 4 vols.) vols.

Place Names

The names of US states and territories are abbreviated in the reference list; use the official two-letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviations.

To cite locations outside of the United States, spell out city and country names.

The names of Australian states may be abbreviated using standard Australia Post abbreviations.

Some examples:

Clevedon, United Kingdom: Channel View Publications

Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

London, England: Taylor & Francis

Newbury Park, CA: Sage

Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Education Australia

Pretoria, South Africa: Unisa