• The short references within the text are given wholly or partly in round brackets.
• Use only the surname of the author followed by a comma and the year of publication:
• Include page, chapter or section numbers if you need to be specific. The abbreviation for page is p. and the abbreviation for pages is pp.:
Matthews discusses the role of drawings in the psychological evaluation of children (1979, pp. 34-35). OR
... in the psychological evaluation of children has been studied elsewhere (Matthews, 1979, pp. 34-35).
• Cite both authors every time you cite within the text.
• Separate the the authors' names in the citation with an "&":
(Lawson & Green, 1997, pp. 34-35)
• When the authors' names are incorporated into the text the "&" is replaced with "and". Always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text:
Lawson and Green (1997, pp. 34-35) were unable ...
Three or more authors
• The first citation in the text of a work with three, four or five authors gives the surnames of all the authors:
Wasserstein, Zappulla, Rosen, Gerstman, and Rock (2004, p. 301) have found ... OR
... as has been found in a previous study (Wasserstein, Zappulla, Rosen, Gerstman, & Rock, 2004, p. 301).
• In subsequent citations in the text, only the surname of the first listed author is used, followed by the expression "et al." which means "and others":
Wasserstein et al. (2004, p. 301) have found...
• If there are six or more authors, only the surname of the first author is used, followed by et al.:
Littlewood et al. (1997) have found ... OR
... as has been previously demonstrated (Littlewood et al., 1997).
Volume numbers included
• Include volume numbers within the citation between the year and the page numbers.
• If more than one volume is given separate with a ";":
This theory is dealt with in detail by Brysen (2003, vol. 2, p. 23; vol. 3, pp. 17-36).
Authors with the same surname
• Make a distinction between authors with the same surname by including the author's initials.
• If the author's surname is incorporated in the text place the initials before the surname; if it is a citation within brackets the initials follow the surname:
The theory was propounded in 1970 (Larsen A.E., 2001) ...
M.K. Larsen (2003) is among those ...
Multiple works by the same author in the same year
• A distinction is made by adding lower case letters, a, b, c, etc. to the date.
• These letters are also included in the full reference in the reference list to distinguish between the two documents:
Bursch (2005a) described how the yak made transport possible in the high mountains of Inner Asia, as did the llama in the Andes of South America (Bursch, 2005b).
• These are works without a personal author.
• Corporate authors may be associations, agencies like government departments, corporations or organisations.
• Names of organisations should be given in full the first time they are cited within the text.
• In subsequent citations, these names may be abbreviated in the text if the abbreviation is meaningful or well known:
(CSIRO, 1999) ...
As predicted by the Centre of Independent Studies (1997) ...
More than one work cited
• List all sources of information either in the text or within the citation separated by a semicolon (;):
(Haddon, 1999; Larsen, 1991) ...
Haddon (1999) and Larsen (1991) demonstrated that ...
(Haddon, 1999, vol. 3, p. 734; Larsen, 1991, p. 11)
• When a work has no author or the author is anonymous, cite in the text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year.
• Use italics for the title:
This was apparently not the case in seventeenth-century England (On Travelling to London, 1683) ... OR
On Travelling to London (1683) reveals that this was not true.
No date of publication
• Use the abbreviation n.d. to indicate that no date of publication is given:
Carruthers (n.d.) has suggested ... OR
• If the author of the article is named, cite in the normal way with the author and date. If there is no author given, cite the newspaper title in italics.
• Include the specific date as well as year and page or section numbers, if appropriate:
(Canberra Times, 24 Jan. 1997, p. B6) ...
The Weekend Australian (24-25 Jan. 1997, p. 19) reported ...