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APA - Referencing Guide

Citing in the Text

Citing in the Text

The short references within the text are given wholly or partly in round brackets.

Use only the surname of the author followed by a comma and the year of publication. Include page, chapter or section numbers if you need to be specific. The abbreviation for page is p. and the abbreviation for pages is pp.

No distinction is made between books, journal articles, internet documents or other formats except for electronic documents that do not provide page numbers. In this instance, use the paragraph number, if available, with the abbreviation para.

Citations in the text can either be either placed at the end of a sentence in parentheses (brackets) or alternatively, the author's name may be included in the text, and just the date and additional information placed within the brackets.

Some Examples

1.  A citation for a book appearing in the text as:

There are many approaches to psychological testing (Kline, 2000, pp. 26-27).

would be found in the reference list in the following form:

Kline, P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed.). London, England: Routledge.

2.  A citation for a journal article appearing in the text as either:

It is clear that goal directed meaning connects perception and specification (Foo & Kelso, 2001, p. 222).


Foo and Kelso (2001) showed that goal directed meaning connects perception and specification.

would be referenced as:

Foo, P., & Kelso, J. A. (2001). Goal directed meaning connects perception and specification. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24(2), 222 - 223.

Note: When referring to multiple authors within the text, precede the final name with the word and. When citing materials within parentheses, precede the final name with an ampersand (&):

... as Kurtines and Szapocnik (2003) demonstrated.

... as has been demonstrated (Kurtines & Szapocnik, 2003).

3.  An electronic document would be cited in the text in the same way as a print document.

For example, a citation for an internet document appearing in the text as:

There are many useful materials available (see Munro, 1999, para. 12)

would be given in the reference list as:

Munro, C. (1999). Facing grief. Synergy, 3(3). Retrieved from: