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APA - Referencing Guide



  Only the author's initials are included regardless of the presentation of the author's name in the source document.

  The given name may be cited in full to identify the author when different authors have the same surname and initials.

  Capitalisation practice also should be consistent.

  Titles and subtitles of books are given minimal capitalisation.

  Only the first letter of the first word of the title (and subtitle, if given) and proper nouns (the names of peoples, place or organisations, etc.) are capitalised.

  Book titles are italicised when typed or underlined when handwritten.

  Information about places of publication should follow the guidelines for place names.


Standard format for citation

Authored work:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of work: Subtitle (edition.). (Volume(s).). Place of publication: Publisher.


Edited work:

Editor, A. A., & Editor, B. B. (Eds.). (Year). Title of work: Subtitle (edition.). (Volume(s).). Place of publication: Publisher.


Single author

Matthews, J. (1999). The art of childhood and adolescence: The construction of meaning. London, England: Falmer Press.

Two authors

Colclough, B., & Colclough, J. (1999). A challenge to change. London, England: Thorsons.

Three to seven authors

Rosenthal, R., Rosnow, R. L., & Rubin, D. B. (2000). Contrasts and effect sizes in behavioral research: A correlational approach. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Eight or more authors
When authors number eight or more, include the first six authors' names, then insert three ellipses and follow with the final author's name.

Edited work

Snyder, C. R. (Ed.). (1999). Coping: The psychology of what works. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Later edition

Newcomb, H. (Ed.). (2000). Television: The critical view (6th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

No author

The Blackwell dictionary of cognitive psychology. (1991). Oxford, England: Blackwell.

No date of publication

Mandl, H., et al. (Eds.). (n.d.). Learning and instruction: European research in an international context. (Vol. 2). Oxford, England: Pergamon.

Two or more books by the same author published in the same year

Kubler-Ross, E. (1993a). AIDS: The ultimate challenge. New York, NY: Collier Books.

Kubler-Ross, E. (1993b). Questions and answers on death and dying. New York, NY: Collier Books.

Multivolume work

Russell, B. (1967). The autobiography of Bertrand Russell (Vols. 1-3). London, England: Allen & Unwin.


Bonino S., Cattelino E., & Ciairano, S. (2005). Adolescents and risk: Behavior, functions, and protective factors. (L. McDonald, Trans.). Milan, Italy : Springer. (Original work published 2003).


American Educational Research Association. (1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Government publication

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (1999). Australia's young people: Their health and wellbeing, the report on the health of young people aged 12-24 years. Canberra, ACT: AIHW.

Government department reports

Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care. (1999). Mental health: A report focusing on depression, 1998. Canberra, ACT: AGPS.

Western Australia. Office of Citizenship and Multicultural Interests. (2000). 2000 migrant services directory: A Western Australian guide for migrants and service providers. Perth, WA: Office of Citizenship and Multicultural Interests.

Please Note: Documents authored by government departments are cited following the jurisdiction they report to. Precede the department name with Australia., Western Australia., etc.