• Personal communications include letters, memos, personal interviews, telephone conversations, emails, text messages, online chats, messages from discussion lists and electronic bulletin boards.
• Citations for this type of material are not included in the reference list because they do not contain recoverable data. Cite personal communications in the text only. Adding "personal communication" to the citation within the text is a useful indicator of the kind of information under discussion.
• Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator and provide as exact a date as possible:
M. Day (personal communication, July 30, 2000) finds the film meets several criteria ...
Professor Lutes in an email to the author gave details of his clinical experience with this treatment (T. K. Lutes, personal communication, April 18, 2001).