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APA - Referencing Guide

All Examples

Complete List of Examples

To see more information about the formats below, either click on the format headings in this list of examples or hover your cursor over the Reference List Entries menu and select the format you want.


Assignments
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Assignment from Another Unit (Reid, 2016)

Reid, S. F. (2016). The importance of scientific method [Unpublished manuscript], BSC100: Building Blocks for Science Students, Murdoch University.


A-V Materials
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
DVD (Moore, 2003)

Moore, M. (Writer/Director). (2003). Bowling for Columbine [DVD]. AV Channel.

Radio Programme (Browning, 2006)

Browning, D. (Presenter). (2006, June 9). Black soccer heroes. Message Stick [Radio programme]. Guest speaker Dr. John Maynard. ABC Radio.

Sound Recording (St. Laurence Chamber Choir & McEwan, 2005)

St. Laurance Chamber Choir (Performers), & McEwan, N. (Director). (2005). Commemoration, ritual and performance: the Iberian connection : medieval and renaissance music from the St Laurence Chamber Choir [Album]. Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney.

Television Series Episode (Masters, 2006)

Masters, C. (Presenter). (2006, March 27). Big fish, little fish. Four Corners [Television series episode]. ABC Television.

Video Recording (Russell & Wiseman, 1995)

Russell, G. (Writer, Producer and Narrator), & Wiseman, P. (Producer). (1995). Tackling bullies: An Australian perspective [Video recording]. Video Classroom.

YouTube/Vimeo Video (NRK, 2007)

NRK. (2007, February 26). Medieval helpdesk with English subtitles. [Video]. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQHX-SjgQvQ


Book Chapters
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Chapter or Article in Edited Book

(Payne, 1999)

Payne, S. (1999). 'Dangerous and different': Reconstructions of madness in the 1990s and the role of mental health policy. In S. Watson & L. Doyal (Eds.), Engendering social policy (pp. 180-195). Open University Press.

Article in an Encyclopaedia

(Ford-Martin, 2003)

Ford-Martin, P. (2003). Cognitive-behavioral therapy. In E. Thackery & M. Harris (Eds.), Gale encyclopedia of mental disorders (Vol.1, pp. 226-228). Gale.


Books
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Book: Including Page Numbers

(Wells, 2009, pp. 225-226)

Wells, A. (2009). Metacognitive therapy for anxiety and depression in psychology. Guilford Press.

Book: Single Author (Matthews, 1999)

Matthews, J. (1999). The art of childhood and adolescence: The construction of meaning. Falmer Press.

Book: Two Authors

(Colcough & Colcough, 1999)

Colclough, B., & Colclough, J. (1999). A challenge to change. Thorsons.

Book: 3-20 Authors

(Rosenthal et al., 2000)

Rosenthal, R., Rosnow, R. L., & Rubin, D. B. (2000). Contrasts and effect sizes in behavioral research: A correlational approach. Cambridge University Press.

Book: More than 20 Authors

(Author et al., Year)

Include the first nineteen authors' names, then insert three ellipses and follow with the final author's name.

Book: Different Works by Same Author in Same Year Kubler-Ross, 1993a)

(Kubler-Ross, 1993b)

Kubler-Ross, E. (1993a). AIDS: The ultimate challenge. Collier Books.

Kubler-Ross, E. (1993b). Questions and answers on death and dying. Collier Books.

Book: Organisation as Author (American Educational Research Association, 1985)

American Educational Research Association. (1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. American Psychological Association.

Book: Government Agency as Author

(Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care, 1998)

Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care. (1999). Mental health: A report focusing on depression, 1998. AGPS.

Book: No Author

(The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology, 1991)

The Blackwell dictionary of cognitive psychology. (1991). Blackwell.

Book: Editor (Snyder, 1999)

Snyder, C. R. (Ed.). (1999). Coping: The psychology of what works. Oxford University Press.

Book: 2 or More Editors (Binstock & George, 1990)

Binstock, R. H., & George, L. K. (Eds.). (1990). Handbook of aging and the social sciences (3rd ed.). Academic Press.

Book: Different Editions

(Howitt & Cramer, 2008)

Howitt, D., & Cramer, D. (2008). Introduction to research methods in psychology (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall.


Conference Papers
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Paper Presentation from the Internet

(Balakrishnan, 2006)

Balakrishnan, R. (2006, March 25-26). Why aren't we using 3d user interfaces, and will we ever? [Paper presentation].  IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces, Alexandria, VA. https://doi.org/10.1109/VR.2006.148.

Unpublished Paper Presentation (Brown & Caste, 1990)

Brown, S., & Caste, V. (2004, May). Integrated obstacle detection framework [Paper presentation]. IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Detroit, MI..

Paper Presentation in Print Proceedings (Rowling, 1993)

Rowling, L. (1993, September). Schools and grief: How does Australia compare to the United States [Paper presentation]. In Wandarna coowar: Hidden grief. 8th National Conference of the National Association for Loss and Grief (Australia), Yeppoon, Queensland (pp. 196-201). National Association for Loss and Grief..


Datasets
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry

Dataset

(Ryff et al., 2019)

Ryff, C., Almeida, D., Ayanian, J., Binkley, N., Carr, D. S., Coe, C., Davidson, R., Grzywacz, J., Karlamangla, A., Krueger, R., Lachman, M., Love, G., Mailick, M., Mroczek, D., Radler, B., Seeman, T., Sloan, R., Thomas, D., Weinstein, M., Williams, D. (2019). Midlife in the United States (MIDUS 3), 2013-2014 (ICPSR 36346) [Dataset]. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36346.v7

Dataset Repository (University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, 2019)

University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. (2019). Consortium for political and social research (ICPSR). https://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/

Dataset Deposit Record (Theure & Gentaz, 2018)

Theure, A., & Gentaz, E. (2018). Data from: The regulation of emotions in adolescents: age differences and emotion-specific patterns [Dataset]. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.n230404. Referenced in https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195501

Dataset Description Article (Lemaignan et al., 2018)

Lemaignan, S., Edmunds, C.E.R., Senft, E., & Belpaeme, T. (2018). The PInSoRo dataset: Supporting the data-driven study of child-child and child-robot social dynamics. PLoS ONE, 13(10), Article e0205999+. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205999


E-books
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry

E-book

(Eckes, 2000)

Eckes, T. (2000). The developmental social psychology of gender. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. https://prospero.murdoch.edu.au:443/record=b1600608

Chapter from an E-book

(Jones & Gagnon, 2007)

Jones, N. A., & Gagnon, C. M. (2007). The neurophysiology of empathy. In T. F. D. Farrow & P. W. R. Woodruff (Eds.), Empathy in mental illness. Cambridge University Press. https://prospero.murdoch.edu.au:443/record=b2130403

Article from an Electronic Encyclopaedia

(Lai, 1999)

Lai, M. C. C. (1999). Hepatitis delta virus. In A. Granoff & R. Webster (Eds.), Encyclopedia of virology (2nd ed.). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012374410-4.00417-9

Article from an Electronic Reference Work: No author

("Alka-Seltzer", 2019)

Alka-Seltzer. (2019). In MIMS online. MIMS Australia. http://www.mimsonline.com.au


E-journals
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Journal Article with a DOI

(Vogels et al., 2009)

Vogels, A. G. C., Crone, M. R., Hoekstra, F., & Reijneveld, S. A. (2009). Comparing three short questionnaires to detect psychosocial dysfunction among primary school children: a randomized method. BMC Public Health, 9, 489. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-489

Journal Article with a DOI: More Than 20 Authors and Including Page Number

(Wiskunde et al., 2019, p. 1936)

Wiskunde, B., Arslan, M., Fischer, P., Nowak, L., Van den Berg, O., Coetzee, L., Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E., Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R., Kumar, B., Xu, A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M., Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E., . . . Kovács, A. (2019). Indie pop rocks mathematics: Twenty One Pilots, Nicolas Bourbaki, and the empty set. Journal of Improbable Mathematics, 27(1), 1935–1968. https://doi.org/10.0000/3mp7y-537

Journal Article with a URL (Ahmann, 2018)

Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L. J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S. D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(1): 24-58. https://www.ahead.org/professional-resources/publications/jped/archived-jped/jped-volume-31

Journal Article with an Article Number (March & Springer, 2019)
 

March, E., & Springer, J. (2019). Belief in conspiracy theories: The predictive role of schizotypy, Machiavellianism, and primary psychopathy. PLoS One, 14(12): Article e0225964. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225964

Journal Article from a URL and Including Paragraph Number (Munro, 1999, para. 12)

Munro, C. (1999). Facing grief. Synergy, 3(3). http://about.murdoch.edu.au/synergy/0303/grief.html


Images
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Image, Photograph or Artwork from a Book (Leibovitz, 1996, p. 72)

Leibovitz, A. (1996). Olympic portraits. Little Brown.

Reproduction in a Book (Bedford, 2001, p. 154)

Bedford, P. (2001). Dingo dreaming [ochre on canvas]. Reproduced in McCulloch, S., & McCulloch Childs, E. (2008). McCulloch's contemporary Aboriginal art: The complete guide (p.154). McCulloch & McCulloch Australian Art Books.

Image from a Book Chapter

(Ardagna et al., 2008, Figure 1)

Ardagna, C. A., Damiani, E., Frati, F., & Madravio, M. (2007). Open-source solution to secure e-government services. In A-V. Anttiroiko & M. Malkia (Eds.), Encyclopedia of digital government (pp. 1300-1305). Idea Group Reference. http://www.igi-global.com/

Image from a Journal Article (Yeh & Xu, 2010, Table 1)

Yeh, Q-J., & Xu, X. (2010). The effect of Confucian work ethics on learning about science and technology knowledge and morality. Journal of Business Ethics, 95, 111-128. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-009-0352-1

Image from a Newspaper (Leunig, 1995, p. 24)

Leunig, M. (1995, July 27). Thoughts of a baby lying in a child care centre. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 24.

Image from a Database (Kessel, 1995, 10:10)

Kessel, M. (Director). (1995). The making of a monologue: Robert Wilson's Hamlet [video,1:02:18 mins]. Cinema Guild.

Online Image/Artwork (Nolan, 1946)

Nolan, S. (1946). The encounter [enamel paint on composition board]. National Gallery of Australia. http://cs.nga.gov.au/Detail.cfm?IRN=28938

Online Map (Google Maps, 2015)

Google Maps. (2015, February 5). The British Library, London, UK. Google. https://www.google.com.au/maps/place/The+British+Library/@51.529972,-0.127676,17z
/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x48761b3b70171395:0x18905479de0fdb25

Original Image/Artwork (Viewed in a Gallery or Collection) (Angus, 2006)

Angus, J. (2006). Gorilla, gorilla, gorilla [wood veneers, nylon]. Art Gallery of Western Australia.


Internet Documents
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Electronic Document (Murray, 2005)

Murray, G. (2005). A duty of care to children and young people in Western Australia: Report on the quality assurance and review of unsubstantiated allegations of abuse in care: 1 April 2004 to 12 September 2005. Western Australia, Department of Child Protection. http://www.community.wa.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/851183A4-A822-4592-AB66-C410E453AEEC/0/DCDRPTGwennMurrayreportwithcover2006.pdf

Government Publication (Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care, 2000)

Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care. (2000). National youth suicide prevention strategy. http://www.health.gov.au/hsdd/mentalhe/sp/nysps/about.htm

Government Publication: Curriculum Document (Western Australia. School Curriculum & Standards Authority, 2017)

Western Australia. School Curriculum & Standards Authority. (2017). Curriculum and assessment outline: Humanities and Social Science. http://k10outline.scsa.wa.edu.au/home/p-10-curriculum/curriculum-browser/humanities-and-social-sciences

Whole Internet Site (Goldberg, 2000)

Goldberg, I. (2000). Dr. Ivan's depression central. http://www.psycom.net/depression.central.html


Journal Articles
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Journal Article in Print (Kyratsis, 2004)

Kyratsis, A. (2004). Talk and interaction among children and the co-construction of peer groups and peer culture. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33(4), 231-247.

Journal Article in Print Including Page Number

(Parker & Roy, 2001, p. 574)

Parker, G., & Roy, K. (2001). Adolescent depression: A review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 572-580.

Journal Article in Print with 3-20 Authors

(Zhang et al., 2006)

Zhang, B., Cohen, J., Ferrence, R., & Rehm, J. (2006). The impact of tobacco tax cuts on smoking initiation among Canadian young adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30(6), 474-479.


Newspaper Articles
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Newspaper Article in Print

(Kissane, 1998)

Kissane, K. (1998, September 5). Kiss or kill: Who is the victim when a battered woman kills? The Age: Extra, p. 6.

Newspaper Article with URL

(Devlin, 2010)

Devlin, H. (2010, January 28). Neuron breakthrough offers hope on Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/science/medicine/article7005401.ece

Newspaper Article from Factiva

(Delalande, 2019)

Delalande, J. (2019, October 26). Our teens struggle the most. The West Australian, p. 32. Factiva. https://global-factiva-com.libproxy.murdoch.edu.au/ha/default.aspx#./!?&_suid=1576141953014019681669927131606.


Podcasts
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Podcast

(Robertson, 2010)

Robertson, R. (Speaker). (2010). Leadership at the bottom of the earth…where no one hears you scream, 2010 Sir Walter Murdoch lecture [Audio podcast]. Murdoch University. https://lectures.murdoch.edu.au/lectopia/lectopia.lasso?ut=1369&id=71101

Podcast Lecture from LMS

(Hill, 2012)

Hill, D. (Speaker). (2012, April 4). Australian media representation of Asia [Audio podcast]. In Australia in Asia (FDN 110). Murdoch University. https://lectures.murdoch.edu.au/lectopia/casterframe.lasso?fid=375705&cnt=true&usr=S940025F&name=not-indicated

Podcast Radio Programme

(Gary, 2007)

Gary, S. (Host). (2007, December 23). Black hole death ray. StarStuff [Audio podcast]. ABC News Radio. http://abc.net.au/newsradio/podcast/STARSTUFF.xml

Podcast Television Programme (Brown et al., 2007)

Brown, W. (Host)., Brodie, K. (Host)., & George, P. (Producer). (2007, June 4). From Lake Baikal to the halfway mark, Yekaterinburg. Peking to Paris: Episode 3 [Video podcast]. ABC Television. http://www.abc.net.au/tv/pekingtoparis/podcast/pekingtoparis.xml


Readers/Study Guides
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Study Guide and Reader

(Gilbert, 2001)

Gilbert, E. (2001, December 15). It's a guy thing. Good Weekend. Reprinted in Bodies, sex and power (WOM104) study guide and unit reader 2004 (pp. 59-64). Murdoch University.

Reader

(Vickery & Bishop, 2005)

Vicary, D., & Bishop, B. (2005). Western psychotherapeutic practice: Engaging Aboriginal people in culturally appropriate and respectful ways. Australian Psychologist, 40, 19. Reprinted in Introduction to psychology and culture (PSY246): Unit reader 2009. Murdoch University.


Secondary Sources
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Secondary Source Seidenberg and McClelland (as cited in Reid, 2007)

Reid, A. S. (2007). Study of multiple paranormal phenomena. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 45, 13-26.


Social Media
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Blog Post

(Flower, 2015)

Flower, R. (2015, June 1). How a simple formula for resolving problems and conflict can change your reality. Pick The Brain. http://www.pickthebrain.com/blog/how-a-simple-formula-for-resolving-problems-and-conflict-can-change-your-reality/

Blog Comment

 

(Stephen, 2017)

Stephen. (2017, February 21). Re: Why you should let your passion die [Comment]. PsychCentral. https://psychcentral.com/blog/discuss/102347/

Facebook Post

(Murdoch University Library, 2017)

Murdoch University Library. (2017, February 22). In a dedication ceremony on Tuesday, Murdoch University celebrated the naming of the Library after eminent historian and Murdoch icon, the late Emeritus Professor Geoffrey Bolton [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/murdochlibrary/?fref=ts

Facebook Comment

(Beach, 2017)

Beach, J. (2017, February 22). Re: In a dedication ceremony on Tuesday, Murdoch University celebrated the naming of the Library after eminent historian and Murdoch icon, the late Emeritus Professor Geoffrey Bolton [Comment]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/murdochlibrary/?fref=ts

Tweet

(Kruszelnicki, 2017)

Kruszelnicki, K. [@DoctorKarl]. (2017, February 19). Fact-checker scientist @bengoldacre, evidence-based medicine, dead cat #Shirtloadsofscience: http://apple.co/2kXmeCd: http://bit.ly/2faxmw5 [Tweet]. https://twitter.com/DoctorKarl? ref_src=twsrc^google| twcamp^serp|twgr^author

YouTube/Vimeo/Ted Talk video

(Setrakian, 2017)

Setrakian, L. (2017, January). Lara Setrakian: 3 ways to fix a broken news industry. [Video]. https://www.ted.com/talks/lara_setrakian_3_ways_to_fix_a_ broken_news_industry#t-521404

YouTube Comment

(Kirk, 2017)

Kirk, J. (2017, February). Re: Medieval helpdesk with English subtitles. [Comment]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQHX-SjgQvQ

Instagram Post

(Murdoch University Library, 2017)

Murdoch University Library. (2017, February 21). An exhibition entitled ‘Geoffrey Bolton: The Legacy of an Eminent Historian and Iconic Murdoch Figure’, featuring artworks, pictures, awards and memorabilia relating to his life, will be showcased in the University Library foyer until March 17 {Photographs]. https://www.instagram.com/murdochlibrary/

Instagram Comment

(Coltferrari, 2017)

Coltferrari. (2017, February 21). Re: An exhibition entitled ‘Geoffrey Bolton: The Legacy of an Eminent Historian and Iconic Murdoch Figure’, featuring artworks, pictures, awards and memorabilia relating to his life, will be showcased in the University Library foyer until March 17 {Comment]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/murdochlibrary/

App

 

(StudentVIP, 2017)

StudentVIP. (2017). Lost on Campus (Version 4.1.3) [Mobile app]. Apple App Store. https://www.apple.com/au/ios/app-store/

Game

(Persson & Bergensten, 2011)

Persson, M., & Bergensten, J. (2011). Minecraft [Game]. Mojang Synergies AB. https://minecraft.net/en-us/


Theses
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Unpublished Thesis (Milnes, 1998)

Milnes, G. M. (1998). Adolescent depression: The use of generative instruction to increase rational beliefs and decrease irrational beliefs and depressed mood [Unpublished M.Appl.Psy. thesis]. Murdoch University.

Published Thesis

(May, 2007)

May, B. (2007) A survey of radial velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud. Canopus Publishing.

Thesis from a Database

(Roemmele, 2018)

Roemmele, M. (2018). Neural networks for narrative continuation (Publication No. 22621448) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Thesis from a Repository

(Ryan, 2014)

Ryan, J. (2014). The measurement and meaning of coping in psychiatric patients [PhD thesis, Murdoch University]. Murdoch University Research Repository. https://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/24254/