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APA Style: All Examples

A guide to APA referencing style for Murdoch University students and staff

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Complete List of Examples

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Assignments


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

Assignment from Another Unit (Reid, 2016)
Reid, S. F. (2016). The importance of scientific method. Unpublished manuscript, BSC100: Building Blocks for Science Students, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia.

A-V Materials


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

DVD (Moore, 2003)
Moore, M. (Writer/Director). (2003). Bowling for Columbine [DVD]. Melbourne, VIC: AV Channel.
Radio Programme (Browning, 2006)
Browning, D. (Presenter). (2006, June 9). Black soccer heroes. Message Stick [Radio programme]. Guest speaker Dr. John Maynard. Sydney, NSW: ABC Radio.
Sound Recording (St. Laurence Chamber Choir & McEwan, 2005)
St. Laurance Chamber Choir (Performers), & McEwan, N. (Director). (2005). Commemoration, ritual and performance: the Iberian connection : medieval and renaissance music from the St Laurence Chamber Choir [CD]. Sydney, NSW: Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney.
Television Programme (Masters, 2006)
Masters, C. (Presenter). (2006, March 27). Big fish, little fish. Four Corners [Television programme]. Sydney, NSW: ABC Television.
Video Recording (Russell & Wiseman, 1995)
Russell, G. (Writer, Producer and Narrator), & Wiseman, P. (Producer). (1995). Tackling bullies: An Australian perspective [Video recording]. Melbourne, VIC: Video Classroom.
YouTube/Vimeo Video (NRK, 2007)
NRK. (2007, February 26). Medieval helpdesk with English subtitles. [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQHX-SjgQvQ

Book Chapters


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

Chapter or Article in Edited Book

(Payne, 1999)

Payne, S. (1999). 'Dangerous and different': Reconstructions of madness in the 1990s and the role of mental health policy. In S. Watson & L. Doyal (Eds.), Engendering social policy (pp. 180-195). Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.
Article in an Encyclopaedia

(Ford-Martin, 2003)

Ford-Martin, P. (2003). Cognitive-behavioral therapy. In E. Thackery&M. Harris (Eds.), Gale encyclopedia of mental disorders (Vol.1, pp. 226-228). Detroit, MI: Gale.


Books


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

Book: Including Page Numbers

(Wells, 2009, pp.225-226)

Wells, A. (2009). Metacognitive therapy for anxiety and depression in psychology. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Book: Single Author (Matthews, 1999)
Matthews, J. (1999). The art of childhood and adolescence: The construction of meaning. London, England: Falmer Press.
Book: Two Authors

(Colcough & Colcough, 1999)

Colclough, B., & Colclough, J. (1999). A challenge to change. London, England: Thorsons.
Book: 3-5 Authors

First citation:
(Rosenthal,Rosnow & Rubin, 2000)
Subsequent citation:
(Rosenthal et al., 2000)

Rosenthal, R., Rosnow, R. L., & Rubin, D. B. (2000). Contrasts and effect sizes in behavioral research: A correlational approach. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Book: 6 -7 Authors

(Jones et al., 1984)

Jones, E., Farina, A., Hastorf, A., Markus, H., Miller, D., & Scott, R. (1984). Social stigma: The psychology of marked relationships. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Book: Different Works by Same Author in Same Year Kubler-Ross, 1993a)

(Kubler-Ross, 1993b)

Kubler-Ross, E. (1993a). AIDS: The ultimate challenge. New York, NY: Collier Books.

Kubler-Ross, E. (1993b). Questions and answers on death and dying. New York, NY: Collier Books.

Book: Organisation as Author (American Educational Research Association, 1985)
American Educational Research Association. (1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Book: Government Agency as Author

(Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care, 1998)

Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care. (1999). Mental health: A report focusing on depression, 1998. Canberra, ACT: AGPS.
Book: No Author

(The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology, 1991)

The Blackwell dictionary of cognitive psychology. (1991). Oxford, England: Blackwell.
Book: Editor (Snyder, 1999)
Snyder, C. R. (Ed.). (1999). Coping: The psychology of what works. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Book: 2 or More Editors (Binstock & George, 1990)
Binstock, R. H., & George, L. K. (Eds.). (1990). Handbook of aging and the social sciences (3rd ed.). New York: Academic Press.
Book: Different Editions

(Howitt & Cramer, 2008)

Howitt, D., & Cramer, D. (2008). Introduction to research methods in psychology (2nd ed.). Harlow, England: FT Prentice Hall.

Conference Papers


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

Conference Paper in Print

(Wilkinson, 1999)

Wilkinson, R. (1999). Sociology as a marketing feast. In M. Collis, L. Munro, & S. Russell (Eds.), Sociology for the New Millennium. Papers presented at The Australian Sociological Association, held at Monash University, Melbourne, 7-10 December (pp. 281-289). Churchill, Victoria: Celts.
Conference Paper from the Internet (Balakrishnan, 2006)
Balakrishnan, R. (2006, 25-26 March). Why aren't we using 3d user interfaces, and will we ever? Paper presented at the IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces. doi:10.1109/VR.2006.148
Unpublished Conference Paper (Brown & Caste, 1990)
Brown, S., & Caste, V. (2004, May). Integrated obstacle detection framework. Paper presented at the IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Detroit, MI.
Conference Proceedings (Bickman & Ellis, 1990)
Bickman, L., & Ellis, H. (Eds.). (1990). Preparing psychologists for the 21st century: Proceedings of the National Conference on Graduate Education in Psychology, University of Utah, 1988. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum.

E-books


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

E-book

(Eckes, 2000)

Eckes, T. (2000). The developmental social psychology of gender. Retrieved from netLibrary: http://www.netlibrary.com

Chapter from an E-book

(Jones & Gagnon, 2007)

Jones, N. A., & Gagnon, C. M. (2007). The neurophysiology of empathy. In T. F. D. Farrow & P. W. R. Woodruff (Eds.), Empathy in mental illness. Retrieved from EBL: http://reader.eblib.com.au

Article from an Electronic Encyclopaedia

(Lai, 1999)

Lai, M. C. C. (1999). Hepatitis delta virus. In A. Granoff & R. Webster (Eds.), Encyclopedia of virology (2nd ed.). doi:10.1016/B978-012374410-4.00417-9


E-journals


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

Journal Article from a Full Text Database with a DOI

First citation:
(Vogels, Crone, Hoekstra, & Reijneveld, 2009)
Subsequent citation:
(Vogels et al., 2009)

Vogels, A. G. C., Crone, M. R., Hoekstra, F., & Reijneveld, S.A. (2009). Comparing three short questionnaires to detect psychosocial dysfunction among primary school children: a randomized method. BMC Public Health, 9, 489. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-489

Journal Article from a Full Text Database with a DOI: 8 or More Authors

(Gilbert et al., 2004)

Gilbert, D. G., Mc Clernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L.C., Asgaard, G., ... Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249-267. doi:10.1080/1462220041001676305

Journal Article from a Full Text Database with no DOI (Altobelli, 2009)

Altobelli, T. (2009). Family violence and parenting: Futuredirections in practice. Australian Journal of Family Law, 23, 194.Retrieved January 22, 2010, from LexisNexis AU.

Journal Article from the Internet with a DOI First citation:
(Bond, Carlin, Thomas, Runin, & Patton, 2001)
Subsequent citation:
(Bond et al., 2001)

Bond, L., Carlin, J. B., Thomas, L., Rubin, K., & Patton, G. (2001). Does bullying cause emotional problems? A prospective study of young teenagers. BMJ, 323, 480-484. doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7311.480

Journal Article from the Internet with no DOI (Sillick & Schutte, 2006)

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 3848. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap/article/view/71/100

Journal Article from the Internet with no DOI Including Paragraph Number (Munro, 1999, para. 12)
Munro, C. (1999). Facing grief. Synergy, 3(3). Retrieved from: http://about.murdoch.edu.au/synergy/0303/grief.html

Images


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

Image/Photograph/Artwork from a Book (Leibovitz, 1996, p. 72)
Leibovitz, A. (1996). Olympic portraits. Boston: Little Brown.
Reproduction in a Book (Bedford, 2001, p. 154)
Bedford, P. (2001). Dingo dreaming [ochre on canvas]. Reproduced in McCulloch, S., & McCulloch Childs, E. (2008). McCulloch's contemporary Aboriginal art : The complete guide (p.154). Fitzroy, Vic: McCulloch & McCulloch Australian Art Books.
Image from a Book Chapter

First citation:
(Ardagna, Damiani, Frati & Madravio, 2008, Figure 1)
Subsequent citation:
(Ardagna et al., 2008, Figure 1)

Ardagna, C. A., Damiani, E., Frati, F., & Madravio, M. (2007). Open-source solution to secure e-government services. In A-V. Anttiroiko & M. Malkia (Eds.), Encyclopedia of digital government (pp. 1300-1305). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Reference. retrieved from IGI Global, http://www.igi-global.com/
Image from a Journal Article (Yeh and Xu, 2010, Table 1)
Yeh, Q-J., & Xu, X. (2010). The effect of Confucian work ethics on learning about science and technology knowledge and morality. Journal of Business Ethics, 95, 111-128. doi:10.1007/s10551-009-0352-1
Image from a Newspaper (Leunig, 1995, p. 24)
Leunig, M. (1995, July 27). Thoughts of a baby lying in a child care centre. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 24.
Image from a Database (Kessel, 1995, min. 10:10)
Kessel, M. (Director). (1995). The Making of a Monologue: Robert Wilson's Hamlet [video,1:02:18 mins]. New York: Cinema Guild. Retrieved January 29, 2015, from Theatre in Video.
Online Image/Artwork (Nolan, 1946)
Nolan, S. (1946). The Encounter [enamel paint on composition board]. Canberra: National Gallery of Australia. Retrieved from http://cs.nga.gov.au/Detail.cfm?IRN=28938
Online Map (Google Maps, 2015)
Google Maps. (2015, February 5). The British Library, London, UK. Google. Retrieved from https://www.google.com.au/maps/place/The+British+Library/@51.529972,-0.127676,17z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x48761b3b70171395:0x18905479de0fdb25
Original Image/Artwork (Viewed in a Gallery or Collection) (Angus, 2006)
Angus, J. (2006). Gorilla, Gorilla, Gorilla [wood veneers, nylon]. Perth: Art Gallery of Western Australia.

Internet Documents


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

Electronic Document (Murray, 2005)
Murray, G. (2005). A duty of care to children and young people in Western Australia: Report on the quality assurance and review of unsubstantiated allegations of abuse in care: 1 April 2004 to 12 September 2005. Retrieved from Western Australia, Department of Child Protection website: http://www.community.wa.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/851183A4-A822-4592-AB66-C410E453AEEC/0/DCDRPTGwennMurrayreportwithcover2006.pdf
Government Publication (Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care., 2000)
Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care. (2000). National youth suicide prevention strategy. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/hsdd/mentalhe/sp/nysps/about.htm
Whole Internet Site (Goldberg, 2000)
Goldberg, I. (2000). Dr. Ivan's depression central. Retrieved from http://www.psycom.net/depression.central.html

Journal Articles


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

Journal Article in Print (Kyratsis, 2004)
Kyratsis, A. (2004).Talk and interaction among children and the co-construction of peer groups and peer culture. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33(4), 231-247.
Journal Article in Print Including Page Number

(Parker & Roy, 2001, p. 574)

Parker, G., & Roy, K. (2001). Adolescent depression: A review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 572-580.
Journal Article in Print with 3-5 Authors

First citation:
(Zhang, Cohen, Ferrence, & Rehm, 2006)
Subsequent citation:
(Zhang et al., 2006)

Zhang, B., Cohen, J., Ferrence, R., & Rehm, J. (2006). The impact of tobacco tax cuts on smoking initiation among Canadian young adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30(6),474-479.

Newspaper Articles


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

Newspaper Article in Print

(Kissane, 1998)

Kissane, K. (1998, September 5). Kiss or kill: Who is the victim when a battered woman kills? The Age: Extra, p. 6.
Newspaper Article from the Internet

(Devlin, 2010)

Devlin, H. (2010, January 28). Neuron breakthrough offers hope on Alzheimers and Parkinsons. The Times. Retrieved from http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/science/medicine/article7005401.ece

Newspaper Article from a Full Text Database

(O'Leary, 2006)

O'Leary, C. (2006, June 29). Landmark study to aid push for public smoking ban. The West Australian, p.14. Retrieved October 20, 2008, from Factiva.

Podcasts


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

Podcast

(Robertson, 2010)

Robertson, R. (Speaker). (2010). Leadership at the Bottom of the Earth... Where No One Hears You Scream, 2010 Sir Walter Murdoch Lecture [Podcast]. Murdoch, WA: Murdoch University. Retrieved from https://lectures.murdoch.edu.au/lectopia/lectopia.lasso?ut=1369&id=71101

Podcast Lecture from Lectopia

(Hill, 2012)

Hill, D. (Speaker). (2012, April 4). Australian media representation of Asia [Podcast lecture]. In Australia in Asia (FDN 110). Murdoch, WA: Murdoch University. Retrieved from https://lectures.murdoch.edu.au/lectopia/casterframe.lasso?fid=375705&cnt=true&usr=S940025F&name=not-indicated

Podcast Radio Programme

(Gary, 2007)

Gary, S. (Presenter). (2007, December 23). Black hole death ray. StarStuff [Podcast radio programme]. Sydney, NSW: ABC News Radio. Retrieved from http://abc.net.au/newsradio/podcast/STARSTUFF.xml

Podcast Television Programme (Brown, Brodie & George, 2007)
Brown, W. (Presenter)., Brodie, K. (Presenter)., & George, P. (Producer). (2007, June 4). From Lake Baikal to the halfway mark, Yekaterinburg. Peking to Paris: Episode 3 [Podcast television programme]. Sydney, NSW: ABC Television. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/tv/pekingtoparis/podcast/pekingtoparis.xml

Readers/Study Guides


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

Study Guide and Reader

(Gilbert, 2001)

Gilbert, E. (2001, December 15). Its a guy thing. Good Weekend. Reprinted in Bodies, sex and power (WOM104) study guide and unit reader 2004 (pp. 59-64). Murdoch, WA: Murdoch University.
Reader

(Vickery & Bishop, 2005)

Vicary, D., & Bishop, B. (2005). Western psychotherapeutic practice: Engaging Aboriginal people in culturally appropriate and respectful ways. Australian Psychologist, 40, 19. Reprinted in Introduction to psychology and culture (PSY246): Unit reader 2009. Murdoch, WA: Murdoch University.

Secondary Sources


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

Secondary Source Seidenberg and McClelland (as cited in Reid, 2007)
Reid, A. S. (2007). Study of multiple paranormal phenomena. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 45, 13-26.

Social Media


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

Blog Post

(Flower 2015)

Flower, R. (2015, June 1). How a simple formula for resolving problems and conflict can change your reality [Blog post]. Pick The Brain. Retrieved from http://www.pickthebrain.com/blog/how-a-simple-formula-for-resolving-problems-and-conflict-can-change-your-reality/
Blog Comment

 

(Stephen 2017)

Stephen. (2017, February 21). Re: Why you should let your passion die [Blog comment]. Retrieved from https://psychcentral.com/blog/discuss/102347/
Facebook Post

(Murdoch University Library 2017)

Murdoch University Library. (2017, February 22). In a dedication ceremony on Tuesday, Murdoch University celebrated the naming of the Library after eminent historian and Murdoch icon, the late Emeritus Professor Geoffrey Bolton [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/murdochlibrary/?fref=ts
Facebook Comment

 

(Beach 2017)

Beach, J. (2017, February 22). Re: In a dedication ceremony on Tuesday, Murdoch University celebrated the naming of the Library after eminent historian and Murdoch icon, the late Emeritus Professor Geoffrey Bolton [Facebook comment]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/murdochlibrary/?fref=ts
Twitter Post

(Kruszelnicki 2017)

Kruszelnicki, K. (2017, February 19). Fact-checker scientist @bengoldacre, evidence-based medicine, dead cat #Shirtloadsofscience: http://apple.co/2kXmeCd: http://bit.ly/2faxmw5 [Twitter post]. @DoctorKarl. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/DoctorKarl? ref_src=twsrc^google| twcamp^serp|twgr^author
YouTube/Vimeo/Ted Talk video

(Setrakian 2017)

Setrakian, L. (2017, January). Lara Setrakian: 3 ways to fix a broken news industry. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/lara_setrakian_3_ways_to_fix_a_ broken_news_industry#t-521404
YouTube Comment

 

(Kirk 2017)

Kirk, J. (2017, February). Re: Medieval helpdesk with English subtitles. [YouTube comment]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQHX-SjgQvQ
Instagram Post

(Murdoch University Library 2017)

Murdoch University Library. (2017, February 21). An exhibition entitled ‘Geoffrey Bolton: The Legacy of an Eminent Historian and Iconic Murdoch Figure’, featuring artworks, pictures, awards and memorabilia relating to his life, will be showcased in the University Library foyer until March 17 {Photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/murdochlibrary/
Instagram Comment

(Coltferrari 2017)

Coltferrari. (2017, February 21). Re: An exhibition entitled ‘Geoffrey Bolton: The Legacy of an Eminent Historian and Iconic Murdoch Figure’, featuring artworks, pictures, awards and memorabilia relating to his life, will be showcased in the University Library foyer until March 17 {Instagram comment]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/murdochlibrary/
App

 

(StudentVIP 2017)

StudentVIP. (2017). Lost on Campus (Version 4.1.3) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com
Game

(Persson & Bergensten 2011)

Persson, M., & Bergensten, J. (2011). Minecraft [Game]. Stockholm, Sweden: Mojang Synergies AB. Retrieved from https://minecraft.net/en-us/

Theses


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List Entry

Unpublished Thesis (Milnes, 1998)
Milnes, G. M. (1998). Adolescent depression: The use of generative instruction to increase rational beliefs and decrease irrational beliefs and depressed mood. Unpublished M.Appl.Psy. thesis, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia.
Published Thesis

(May, 2007)

May, B. (2007) A survey of radial velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud. Bristol, England: Canopus Publishing.
Thesis from a Full Text Database

(Bari, 2006)

Bari, M. (2006). A distributed conceptual model for stream salinity generation processes : A systematic data-based approach. Retrieved from Australasian Digital Theses Program. (WU2006.0058).