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APA - Referencing Guide



All images, referred to in the text or reproduced in an essay, assignment or presentation, must be cited and included in your reference list.

For more information about copyright, the use of images, and open access sources of images, please go to Copyright Matters.


Standard formats for citation

Image reproduced in a book:

Artist or Creator, A. (Year). Title: Subtitle [medium (if appropriate)]. Reproduced in Full details of book.


Image from a database:

Artist or Creator, A. (Credit). (Year). Title: Subtitle [medium (if appropriate), length of work (if appropriate)]. Place: Publisher. Retrieved Month date, Year, from Database name.


Online image/artwork:

Artist or Creator, A. (Year). Title: Subtitle [medium (if appropriate)]. Place: Publisher. Retrieved from internet address


Original image/artwork (viewed in a gallery or collection):

Artist or Creator, A. (Year). Title: Subtitle [medium (if appropriate)]. Place: Gallery or Collection.


Image/photograph/artwork from a book

Leibovitz, A. (1996). Olympic portraits. Boston: Little Brown.

Mapplethorpe, R. (1989). Some women. Boston: Bulfinch Press.

Reproduction in a book

Bedford, P. (2001). Dingo dreaming [ochre on canvas]. Reproduced in McCulloch, S., & McCulloch Childs, E. (2008). McCulloch's contemporary Aboriginal art : The complete guide (p.154). Fitzroy, Vic: McCulloch & McCulloch Australian Art Books.

Image from a book chapter

Ardagna, C. A., Damiani, E., Frati, F., & Madravio, M. (2007). Open-source solution to secure e-government services. In A-V. Anttiroiko & M. Malkia (Eds.), Encyclopedia of digital government (pp. 1300-1305). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Reference. retrieved from IGI Global,

Hockley, L. (2008). Science fiction. In G. Creber (Ed.), The television genre book (2nd ed., pp. 36-42). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Image from a journal article

Smith, P. J. (2015). Flight of fancy. Sight&Sound, 25(1), 28-31.

Yeh, Q-J., & Xu, X. (2010). The effect of Confucian work ethics on learning about science and technology knowledge and morality. Journal of Business Ethics, 95, 111-128. doi:10.1007/s10551-009-0352-1

Image from a newspaper

Leunig, M. (1995, July 27). Thoughts of a baby lying in a child care centre. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 24.

Image from a database

Kessel, M. (Director). (1995). The Making of a Monologue: Robert Wilson's Hamlet [video,1:02:18 mins]. New York: Cinema Guild. Retrieved January 29, 2015, from Theatre in Video.

Online image/artwork

Heimans, R. (1996). Gloves Off (Tom Uren) [oil paint on canvas]. Canberra: National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved from

Newbold, C. R. (2014). Can I Use that Picture? The Terms, Laws, and Ethics for Using Copyrighted Pictures. The Visual Communication Guy. Retrieved from

Nolan, S. (1946). The Encounter [enamel paint on composition board]. Canberra: National Gallery of Australia. Retrieved from

Ryder, M. (2006). Driving Action with "Values". Archestra. Retrieved from

Online map

Google Maps. (2015, February 5). The British Library, London, UK.  Google. Retrieved from,-0.127676,17z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x48761b3b70171395:0x18905479de0fdb25

Original image/artwork (viewed in a gallery or collection)

Angus, J. (2006). Gorilla, Gorilla, Gorilla [wood veneers, nylon]. Perth: Art Gallery of Western Australia.