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Vancouver - Referencing Guide



  See Book Chapters guidance page to reference book chapters, as this page has guidance for referencing whole books.

  Only the author's initials are included regardless of the presentation of the author's name in the source document.

  Capitalisation practice should be consistent.

  Titles and subtitles of books are given minimal capitalisation.

  Only the first letter of the first word of the title and proper nouns (the names of peoples, place or organisations, etc.) are capitalised.

  Capitalise the "v" in Volume for a book title.

  Information about places of publication should follow the guidelines for place names.

•  Include the DOI for e-books in your reference, if given.

•  Include the URL for e-books in your reference, if a DOI is not given.


Standard format for citation

 Authored e-book:

#. Author A, Author B. Title of e-book: subtitle [format]. Place: Publisher; Date of original publication [cited year abbreviated month day]. Available from: URL.


Authored print book:

#. Author AA. Title: subtitle. edition (if not the first). Vol. (if a multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher; Year. p. page number(s) (if appropriate).


Edited print work:

#. Editor AA, Editor BB, editors. Title of work: subtitle. edition (if not the first). Vol. (if a multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher; Year. p. page number(s) (if appropriate).


Single author or editor

1. Hoppert M. Microscopic techniques in biotechnology. Weinheim (Germany): Wiley-VCH; 2003.

2. Storey KB, editor. Functional metabolism: regulation and adaptation. Hoboken (NJ): J. Wiley & Sons; 2004.

Two or more authors or editors

3. van Belle G, Fisher LD, Heagerty PJ, Lumley TS. Biostatistics: a methodology for the health sciences [e-book]. 2nd ed. Somerset (NJ): Wiley InterScience; 2003 [cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from:

4. Sommers-Flanagan J, Sommers-Flanagan R. Clinical interviewing [e-book]. 5th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2015 [cited 2015 Jun 30]. Available from:

5. Lawhead JB, Baker MC. Introduction to veterinary science. Clifton Park (NY): Thomson Delmar Learning; 2005.

6. Gilstrap LC, Cunningham FG, Van Dorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

Later edition

7. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobyashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St Louis: Mosby; 2002.

No author

8. The Oxford concise medical dictionary. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2003. 880 p.

Multivolume work

9. Lee GR, Bithell TC, Foerster J, Athens JW, Lukens JN, editors. Wintrobes clinical hematology. 9th ed. Vol. 2. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1993. 2324 p.


10. Unwin E, Codde JP, Bartu A. The impact of drugs other than alchohol and tobacco on the health of Western Australians. Perth: Dept of Health; 2004. (Epidemiology occasional papers series; No. 20).

Organisation as author

11. American Veterinary Medical Association. National Board Examination Committee. North American Veterinary Licensing Examination: bulletin of information for candidates. Bismarck (ND): The Committee; 2001.

Government publications

12. Australia. Commonwealth Department of Veterans' Affairs and Defence. Australian Gulf War veterans' health study 2003. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2003.

13. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Disability, ageing and carers: summary of findings. Canberra: ABS; 1999. ABS publication 4430.0.

Note: Documents authored by government departments are cited following the jurisdiction they report to. Precede the department name with Australia., Western Australia., etc.  

Scientific / Technical report

14. Lugg DJ. Physiological adaptation and health of an expedition in Antarctica: with comment on behavioural adaptation. Canberra: A.G.P.S.; 1977. Australian Government Department of Science, Antarctic Division. ANARE scientific reports. Series B(4), Medical science No. 0126.

Patent / Standard

15. Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.

See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, books, and web pages.