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Vancouver - Referencing Guide

Citing Secondary Sources

Citing Secondary Sources

Use secondary sources sparingly; you should always try to locate the original source of information which is cited in a work that you have read. This is, however, not always possible: sometimes the original work is out of print, unavailable through your usual sources or not available in English.

Reference may be made to an author's citation of, or quotation from, another's work.

Distinguish between works cited and quoted.

In the text, the name of the original author, rather than the secondary source, should be mentioned.



1. Gordis E. Relapse and craving: a commentary. Alcohol Alert. 1989;6:3. Cited by Mason BJ, Kocsis JH, Ritvo EC, Cutler RB. A double-blind, placebo controlled trial of desipramine for primary alcohol dependence stratified on the presence or absence of major depression, JAMA. 1996;275:761-7.


2. Charrow RP. PHS' Office of Scientific Integrity Review: housekeeping is in order. J NIH Res. 1991;3:103-6. Quoted by Rennie D, Gunsalus CK. Scientific misconduct: new definition, procedures, and office - perhaps a new leaf. JAMA. 1993;269:915-7.