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Vancouver - Referencing Guide

Citing Secondary Sources

Citing Secondary Sources

 A secondary source is one where the author of the work you are reading (e.g. book, article, etc.) is referencing or quoting another author's work.

 Always try to locate the original source of information which is cited in a work that you have read.
   This is not always possible. For example, when the original work is:

  • out of print
  • unavailable through your usual sources
  • not available in English

Reference may be made to an author's citation of, or quotation from, another's work.

Distinguish between works cited and quoted.

In the text, the name of the original author, rather than the secondary source, should be mentioned.



1. Gordis E. Relapse and craving: a commentary. Alcohol Alert. 1989;6:3. Cited by Mason BJ, Kocsis JH, Ritvo EC, Cutler RB. A double-blind, placebo controlled trial of desipramine for primary alcohol dependence stratified on the presence or absence of major depression, JAMA. 1996;275:761-7.


2. Charrow RP. PHS' Office of Scientific Integrity Review: housekeeping is in order. J NIH Res. 1991;3:103-6. Quoted by Rennie D, Gunsalus CK. Scientific misconduct: new definition, procedures, and office - perhaps a new leaf. JAMA. 1993;269:915-7.