Skip to Main Content

Vancouver - Referencing Guide

Annotated Bibliographies

Guidelines for Writing Annotated Bibliographies

This page has guidelines for writing an annotated bibliography - not citing an annotated bibliography.

• Follow the citation format guidelines for each format type if citing an annotated bibliography.




  • start annotation in a new paragraph below each reference
  • indent annotation 2.5cm from left margin (to distinguish from the reference)
  • if annotation is longer than 1 paragraph, start on a new line, but do not add extra space between paragraphs


Sample Annotated Bibliography


Aquatic Microplastic Pollution: Annotated Bibliography


Andrady A, Zhu L. Microplastics as pollutants in the marine environment. In: Häder DP, Helbling EW, Villafañe VE, editors. Anthropogenic pollution of aquatic ecosystems. Sweden: Springer; 2021. p. 373-99. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-75602-4_17.

This book chapter provides an overview of the types and sources of plastic pollution and the effect this has on aquatic life - both organisms and ecosystems.  The authors examine the main classes of plastics found in beach litter and in the marine environment, their degradation and fragmentation into microplastics. The majority of the chapter is concerned with the ecological impact of microplastics and the effect of their ingestion by marine fauna - from vertebrates to plankton.


Fabri-Ruiz S, Baudena A, Moullec F, Lombard F, Irisson J-O, Pedrotti ML. Mistaking plastic for zooplankton: risk assessment of plastic ingestion in the Mediterranean Sea. Sci Total Environ. 2023;856. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.159011.

Fabri-Ruiz et al. conducted an analysis of the plastic debris and zooplankton ratio values in the Mediterranean Sea, calculating the plastic to zooplankton ratio in two case studies - the Gulf of Gabès and the Cilician basin regions which have high numbers of pelagic fish, and the Pelagos Sanctuary. The findings showed greater amounts of plastic debris than zooplankton organisms. This impacts the marine ecosystem and the fishing industry in these regions.