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Vancouver - Referencing Guide

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Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Assignment from Another Unit (1) 1. Reid, SF. The importance of scientific method. Unpublished [manuscript], BSC100: Building Blocks for Science Students, Murdoch (WA): Murdoch University; 2016.

AV Materials
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
DVD (2) 2. Acland RD, presenter. Acland's DVD atlas of human anatomy [DVD]. Baltimore (MD): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.
Radio Programme (3) 3. Doogue G, presenter. New reporting rules for medicos. SaturdayExtra [radio broadcast]. Sydney: ABC Radio, 2010 Jul 17.
Sound Recording (4) 4. Owen W, presenter. The human body [sound recording]. Midland (WA): People Learn productions; 2006.
Television Programme (5) 5. Cohen J, reporter. Messing with heads. Four corners [television broadcast]. Sydney: Australian Broadcasting Corporation; 2005 Mar 21.
Video Recording (6) 6. Hillel J, writer. Out of sight out of mind: indigenous people's health in Australia [videorecording]. Bendigo: Video Education Australasia; 2003.
YouTube/Vimeo Video (7) 7. NRK. Medieval helpdesk with English subtitles. [video file]. 2007 Feb 26 [cited 2014 Jan 28]. Available from:

Book Chapters
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Chapter or Article in Edited E-book (8) 8. Jones NA, Gagnon CM. The neurophysiology of empathy. In: Farrow TFD, Woodruff PWR, editors. Empathy in mental illness [e-book]. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press; 2007 [cited 2010 Aug 10]: 217-38. Available from:
Chapter or Article in Edited Print Book


9. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
Article in an Electronic Encyclopaedia (10) 10. Lee HC, Pagliaro EM. Serology: blood identification. In: Siegel J, Knupfer G, Saukko P, editors. Encyclopedia of forensic sciences [e-book]. San Diego: Academic Press; 2000 [cited 2005 Jun 30]:1331-8. Available from:
Article in an Encyclopaedia


11. Ford-Martin, P. Cognitive-behavioral therapy. In: Thackery E, Harris M, editors. Gale encyclopedia of mental disorders. Vol. 1. Detroit (MI): Gale; 2003. p. 226-8.

Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Book: Single Author (12) 12. Hoppert M. Microscopic techniques in biotechnology. Weinheim (Germany): Wiley-VCH; 2003.
E-book: Two or More Authors or Editors (13) 13. van Belle G, Fisher LD, Heagerty PJ, Lumley TS. Biostatistics: a methodology for the health sciences [e-book]. 2nd ed. Somerset (NJ): Wiley InterScience; 2003 [cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from:
Book: Two or More Authors or Editors


14. Gilstrap LC, Cunningham FG, Van Dorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
Book: Organisation as Author (15) 15. American Veterinary Medical Association. National Board Examination Committee. North American Veterinary Licensing Examination: bulletin of information for candidates. Bismarck (ND): The Committee; 2001.
Book: Government Agency as Author (16) 16. Australia. Commonwealth Department of Veterans' Affairs and Defence. Australian Gulf War veterans' health study 2003. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2003.
Book: No Author (17) 17. The Oxford concise medical dictionary. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2003. 880 p.
Book: Editor (18) 18. Storey KB, editor. Functional metabolism: regulation and adaptation. Hoboken (NJ): J. Wiley & Sons; 2004.
Book: Different Editions (19) 19. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobyashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St Louis: Mosby; 2002.
Scientific/Technical Report (20) 20. Lugg DJ. Physiological adaptation and health of an expedition in Antarctica: with comment on behavioural adaptation. Canberra: A.G.P.S.; 1977. Australian Government Department of Science, Antarctic Division. ANARE scientific reports. Series B(4), Medical science No. 0126.

Conference Papers
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Conference Paper in Print


21. Khalifa ME, Elmessiry HM, ElBahnasy KM, Ramadan HMM. Medical image registration using mutual information similarity measure. In: Lim CT, Goh JCH, editors. Icbme2008: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering; 2008 Dec 3-6; Singapore. Dordrecht: Springer; 2009. p. 151-5.
Conference Paper from the Internet (22) 22. Cloherty SL,  Dokos S,  Lovell NH. Qualitative support for the gradient model of cardiac pacemaker heterogeneity. In: Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 27 Annual Conference; 2005 Sep 1-4; Shanghai, China. New York: IEEE; 2005 [cited 2010 Sep 2]. p. 133-6. Available from:
Unpublished Conference Paper (23) 23. Waterkeyn J, Matimati R, Muringanzia A. ZOD for all: scaling up the community health club model to meet the MDGs for sanitation in rural and urban areas: case studies from Zimbabwe and Uganda. Paper presented at International Water Association Development Congress; Mexico; 2009 Nov 15-9.
Conference Proceedings (24) 24. Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V: Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.

Course Materials
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Lectures (recordings accessed via LMS) (25) 25. Jones, A. The business of healthcare provision: Strategies for management [Lecture recording]. In MBS529: Strategic Health Leadership and Management. Perth, Western Australia: Murdoch University; 2023 Apr 1. [cited 2023 Apr 3]. Available from:
PowerPoint slides (accessed via LMS) (26) 26. Brown, A. 5 strategies for effective leadership for healthcare provision [PowerPoint slides]. In MBS529: Strategic Health Leadership and Management. Perth, Western Australia: Murdoch University; 2023 Apr 1. Available from:

Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Dataset (27) 27. Coin L. Genomics of development and disease [dataset]. 2014 Jun 1 [cited 2017 Jun 9]. The University of Queensland. Available from:
Dataset Repository (28) 28. Global Health Observatory Data Repository [Internet]. Geneva: WHO. [cited 2019 Jul 3]. Available from:
Dataset Deposit Record (29) 29. Zimmermann B, Tkalčec Z, Mešić A, Kohler A. Characterizing aeroallergens by infrared spectroscopy of fungal spores and pollen [dataset]. 2015 Apr 27 [cited 2019 Jul 3]. Dryad Digital Repository. Available from: Referenced in doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124240.
Dataset Description Article (30) 30. Mann C, Kane L, Dai M, Jacobson K. Description of the 2012 NEMSIS public-release research dataset. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2015;19(2):232-40. doi: 10.3109/10903127.2014.959219.

Internet Documents
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Electronic Document (31) 31. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Chronic diseases and associated risk factors [Internet]. Canberra: The Institute; 2004 [updated 2005 Jun 23; cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from:
Government Publication (32) 32. Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care.  National youth suicide prevention strategy [Internet]. Canberra: The Department; 2000 [cited 2005 Jul 1]. Available from:
Legislation (33) 33. Gene Technology Act 2000 (Cth) [Internet]. Canberra: Office of Parliamentary Counsel [cited 2019 Apr 12]. Available from:
Internet Site (34) 34. Lavelle P. Mental state of the nation. Health matters [Internet]. ABC online; 2005 May 19 [cited 2005 Jul 1]. Available from:

Journal Articles
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Journal Article from a Full Text Database (35) 35. Abalos E, Carroli G, Mackey ME. The tools and techniques of evidence-based medicine. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2005;19(1):15-26. doi:10.1016/j.bpogyn.2004.10.008.
Journal Article from the Internet (36) 36. Eisen SA, Kang HK, Murphy FM, Blanchard MS, Reda DJ, Henderson WG, et al. Gulf War veterans' health: medical evaluation of a U.S. cohort? Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2005 Jun 30];142(11):881+. Available from:
Journal Article from a Preprint Database (37) 37. Kording KP, Mensch B. Ten simple rules for structuring papers. BioRxiv [preprint]. 2016 bioRxiv 088278 [posted 2016 Nov 28; revised 2016 Dec 15; revised 2016 Dec 15; cited 2017 Feb 9]: [12 p.]. Available from:
Journal Article in Print (38) 38. Drummond PD. Triggers of motion sickness in migraine sufferers. Headache. 2005;45(6):653-6.
Journal Article in Print: More Than Six Authors (39) 39. Gillespie NC, Lewis RJ, Pearn JH, Bourke ATC, Holmes MJ, Bourke JB, et al. Ciguatera in Australia: occurrence, clinical features, pathophysiology and management. Med J Aust. 1986;145:584-90.
Journal Article: Forthcoming (40) 40. Staartjes VE, Siccoli A, de Wispelaere MP, Schröder, ML. Do we need 2 years of follow-up? Spine J. Forthcoming 2019.

Newspaper Articles
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Newspaper Article in Print (41) 41. Hatch, B. Smoke lingers for those who keep hospitality flowing. Australian Financial Review. 2006 Jul 13:14.
Newspaper Article from the Internet (42) 42. Devlin, H. Neuron breakthrough offers hope on Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. The Times [Internet]. 2010 Jan 28 [cited 2010 Jan 31]. Available from:
Newspaper Article from a Full Text Database (43) 43. Lampathakis, P. Tantrums seen as suicide warning. The West Australian [Internet]. 1997 Aug 11 [cited 2001 Nov 21]:26. Available from:

Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Podcast (44) 44. Robertson R. Leadership at the bottom of the Earth…where no one hears you scream. 2010 Sir Walter Murdoch Lecture. [Internet]. Murdoch, WA: Murdoch University; 2010 [cited 2012 Jun 5]. Available from:
Podcast Lecture from Lectopia (45) 45. Hill, D. Australian media representation of Asia. [Internet]. In Australia in Asia (FDN110). Murdoch (WA): Murdoch University; 2012 Apr 4 [cited 2012 Jun 5]. Available from:
Podcast Radio Programme (46) 46. Gary S. Black hole death ray. StarStuff [podcast on the Internet]. Sydney: ABC News Radio; 2007 Dec 23 [cited 2008 Feb 4]. Available from:
Podcast Television Programme (47) 47. Brown W, Brodie K, George P. From Lake Baikal to the halfway mark, Yekaterinburg. Peking to Paris: episode 3 [Internet]. Sydney: ABC Television; 2007 June 4 [cited 2008 Feb 4]. Available from:

Readers/Study Guides
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Reader (48) 48. Vicary D, Bishop B. Western psychotherapeutic practice: engaging Aboriginal people in culturally appropriate and respectful ways. Aust Psychol. 2005;40:19. Reprinted in Introduction to psychology and culture (PSY246): unit reader 2009. Murdoch (WA): Murdoch University; 2009. p. 30.

Secondary Sources
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Secondary Source: Citing (49) 49. Gordis E. Relapse and craving: a commentary. Alcohol Alert. 1989;6:3. Cited by Mason BJ, Kocsis JH, Ritvo EC, Cutler RB. A double-blind, placebo controlled trial of desipramine for primary alcohol dependence stratified on the presence or absence of major depression, JAMA. 1996;275:761-7.
Secondary Source: Quoting (50) 50. Charrow RP. PHS' Office of Scientific Integrity Review: housekeeping is in order. J NIH Res. 1991;3:103-6. Quoted by Rennie D, Gunsalus CK. Scientific misconduct: new definition, procedures, and office - perhaps a new leaf. JAMA. 1993;269:915-7.

Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Unpublished Thesis (51) 51. Hincks CL. The detection and characterisation of novel papillomaviruses. Biomedical Science, Honours [thesis]. Murdoch (WA): Murdoch University; 2001.
Published Thesis (52) 52. Gruszczynski L. Regulating health and environmental risks under WTO law: a critical analysis of the SPS agreement. New York: Oxford University Press; 2010.
Thesis from the Internet (53) 53. Gethin, A. Poor suburbs and poor health: exploring the potential of a locational approach to reducing health disadvantage in Australian cities. PhD [dissertation]. Sydney: University of Western Sydney; 2007. Available from: