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Vancouver - Referencing Guide

Sample Reference List

Formatting Your Reference List

  The reference list should appear at the end of your paper. Begin the list on a new page.

The title References should be either left justified or centered on the page.

The hanging indent for each reference makes the numerical sequence more obvious.

The entries should appear as one numerical sequence in the order that the material is cited in the text of your assignment.

An Example



1. Hoppert M. Microscopic techniques in biotechnology. Weinheim (Germany): Wiley-VCH; 2003.
2. Drummond PD. Triggers of motion sickness in migraine sufferers. Headache. 2005;45(6):653-6.
3. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human
cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
4. Storey KB, editor. Functional metabolism: regulation and adaptation. Hoboken (NJ): J. Wiley & Sons; 2004.
5. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(7):284-7.
6. Geck MJ, Yoo S, Wang JC. Assessment of cervical ligamentous injury in trauma patients using MRI. J Spinal Disord. 2001;14(5):371-7.
7. Gillespie NC, Lewis RJ, Pearn JH, Bourke ATC, Holmes MJ, Bourke JB, et al. Ciguatera in Australia: occurrence, clinical features, pathophysiology and management. Med J Aust. 1986;145:584-90.
8. Lawhead JB, Baker MC. Introduction to veterinary science. Clifton Park (NY): Thomson Delmar Learning; 2005.
9. Ford HL, Sclafani RA, Degregori J. Cell cycle regulatory cascades. In: Stein GS, Pardee AB, editors. Cell cycle and growth control: biomolecular regulation and cancer. 2nd ed. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley-Liss; 2004. p. 42-67.
10. Gilstrap LC, Cunningham FG, Van Dorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
11. The Oxford concise medical dictionary. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2003. 880 p.
12. Palsson G, Hardardottir KE. For whom the cell tolls: debates about biomedicine (1). Curr Anthropol [serial online]. 2002 [cited 2005 Jun 30]; 43(2):271+. doi:10.1086/338302.
13. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobyashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St Louis: Mosby; 2002.
14. Barton CA, McKenzie DP, Walters EH, Abramson MJ. Interactions between psychosocial problems and management of asthma: who is at risk of dying? J Asthma. 2005;42(4):249-56. doi:10.1081/JAS-200057881.
15. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.
16. 21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7537):184.
17. Dearne K. Dispensing with the chemist. The Australian [newspaper online]. Jun 14, 2005 [cited 2005 Jun 30];[about 8 screens]. Available from:
18. Diseased organs may be used to deter smokers. Sydney Morning Herald [Internet]. Jun 29, 2005 [cited 2005 Jun 30]; para. 4-5. Available from:
19. Allen C, Crake D, Wilson H, Buchholz A. Polycystic ovary syndrome and a low glycemic index diet. Can J Diet Pract Res [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2005 Jun 30];Summer:3. Available from:
20. Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.
21. Banit DM, Kaufer H, Hartford JM. Intraoperative frozen section analysis in revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 2002;(401):230-8.
22. O'Leary C. Vitamin C does little to prevent winter cold. The West Australian. 2005 Jun 29;1.
23. Lee GR, Bithell TC, Foerster J, Athens JW, Lukens JN, editors. Wintrobes clinical hematology. 9th ed. Vol 2. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1993.
24. Australian Insitute of Health and Welfare. Chronic diseases and associated risk factors [Internet]. Canberra: The Institute; 2004 [updated 2005 June 23; cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from:
25. Unwin E, Codde JP, Bartu A. The impact of drugs other than alchohol and tobacco on the health of Western Australians. Perth: Dept of Health; 2004. (Epidemiology occasional papers series, No. 20).
26. van Belle G, Fisher LD, Heagerty PJ, Lumley TS. Biostatistics: a methodology for the health sciences [e-book]. 2nd ed. Somerset (NJ): Wiley InterScience; 2003 [cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from:
27. Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming: EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.
28. American Veterinary Medical Association. National Board Examination Committee. North American Veterinary Licensing Examination: bulletin of information for candidates. Bismarck (ND): The Committee; 2001.
29. Sommers-Flanagan J, Sommers-Flanagan R. Clinical interviewing [e-book]. 5th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2015 [cited 2015 Jun 30]. Available from:
30. Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.
31. Australia. Commonwealth Department of Veterans' Affairs and Defence. Australian Gulf War veterans' health study 2003. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2003.
32. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Disability, ageing and carers: summary of findings. Canberra: ABS; 1999. ABS publication 4430.0.
33. Lee HC, Pagliaro EM. Serology: blood identification. In: Siegel J, Knupfer G, Saukko P, editors. Encyclopedia of forensic sciences [e-book]. San Diego: Academic Press; 2000 [cited 2005 Jun 30]:1331-8. Available from:
34. Lugg DJ. Physiological adaptation and health of an expedition in Antarctica: with comment on behavioural adaptation. Canberra: A.G.P.S.; 1977. Australian Government Department of Science, Antarctic Division. ANARE scientific reports. Series B(4), Medical science No. 0126.
35. Widdicombe J. Respiration. In: Blakemore C, Jennett S, editors. The Oxford companion to the body [e-book]. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2001 [cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from:

36. Hincks CL. The detection and characterisation of novel papillomaviruses. Biomedical Science, Honours [thesis]. Murdoch (WA): Murdoch University; 2001.