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Vancouver - Referencing Guide

More Information

Sources of More Information

1. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: writing and editing for biomedical publication [Internet]. ICMJE; 2018 [updated 2023 May; cited 2023 Jun 13]. Available from: which states:
References should follow the standards summarized in the NLM’s Sample References webpage and detailed in the NLM’s Citing Medicine (latest edition). 

2. US. National Library of Medicine. Samples of formatted references for authors of journal articles [Internet]. NLM; 2018 [updated 2023 Apr 14; cited 2023 Jun 13]. Available from: .

3. Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007. [updated 2015 Oct 2; cited 2023 Jun 13]. Available from:

4. Christinasen, S, Iverson, I, editors. AMA manual of style: a guide for authors and editors [e-book]. 11th ed. New York (NY): Oxford University Press, 2020 [cited 2023 Nov 15]. Available from:


  A small group of editors of general medical journals met informally in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1978 to establish guidelines for the format of manuscripts submitted to their journals.

  This group became known as the Vancouver Group. Its requirements for manuscripts, including formats for citations and references were first published in 1979 by the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

  The Vancouver Group expanded and evolved into the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which meets annually.