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Vancouver - Referencing Guide

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•  International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: writing and editing for biomedical publication [Internet]. ICMJE; 2018 [updated 2018 Dec; cited 2005 Jun 28]. Available from:

  US. National Library of Medicine. Samples of formatted references for authors of journal articles [Internet]. NLM; 2018 [updated 2018 Apr 26; cited 2019 Jun 28]. Available from:

  Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [e-book], 2nd ed. NLM; 2007 [updated 2015 Oct 2; cited 2019 Jun 29]. Available from:


  A small group of editors of general medical journals met informally in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1978 to establish guidelines for the format of manuscripts submitted to their journals.

  This group became known as the Vancouver Group. Its requirements for manuscripts, including formats for citations and references were first published in 1979 by the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

  The Vancouver Group expanded and evolved into the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which meets annually.