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ACS - Referencing Guide



  • For location information, include the city name even if it is part of the university name, and then the state. However, if both the city and state are part of the university name, such as University of Illinois at Chicago or University of California, Santa Barbara, then do not repeat these in the location.
  • For locations within the US, include City then State.
  • For locations outside the US, include City then Country.
  • Access date is needed for URLs, but not for DOIs.
  • Titles are not italicised.
  • Theses may be called dissertations, depending on the institution.


Standard format for citation

Thesis in print:

Author, A. A. Title of Thesis: Subtitle. Level of Thesis, University, Location of University, Year.


Thesis Online:

Author, A.A. Title of Thesis: Subtitle. Level of Thesis, University, Location of University, Year. DOI or URL (accessed YYYY-MM-DD).


Thesis from an online repository

1. Cable, M. L. Life in Extreme Environments: Lanthanide-Based Detection of Bacterial Spores and Other Sensor Design Pursuits. Ph.D. Dissertation, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 2010. (accessed 2019-09-10).

2. Giner, E. A. Adiciones y Cicloadiciones a Carbenos de Fischer Conjugados del Grupo 6 y Reacciones Secuenciales sobre Metalaciclos de Ir(III). Ph.D. Thesis, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain, 2018. (accessed 2019-02-16).

Thesis in print

3. Shiers, D. Chemolithotrophic Batch Cultures and Solution Parameters. Honours Thesis, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Australia, 2004.

4. Mackel, H. Capturing the Spectra of Silicon Solar Cells. PhD Thesis, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, December 2004.




See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, books, theses and web pages.