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Footnote - Referencing Guide

Secondary Sources


  Use secondary sources sparingly.

  Always try to locate the original source of information which is cited in a work that you have read.
   This is not always possible. For example, when the original work is:

  • out of print
  • unavailable through your usual sources
  • not available in English

  Reference may be made to an author's citation of, or quotation from, another's work.

  Distinguish between works cited and quoted.

•  Both the original and secondary source should be listed in your footnote.

•  A corresponding entry should also be listed in your bibliography.

•  Follow the citation format guidelines for each format type.

•  Follow the In Text Citation Guidelines for Citing Secondary Sources when referring to a secondary source in text.


1. William K. Clifford, "The Ethics of Belief," Lectures and Essays (London: Macmillan, 1901), II: 163-205, cited in Rik Peels, "The Ethics of Belief and Christian Faith as Commitment to Assumptions," Religious Studies 46, no. 1 (March 2010): 97-107.

2. Louis Zukofsky, "Sincerity and Objectification," Poetry 37, no. 5 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, books and web pages.

Bibliography Entries

For ease of use, this guide divides bibliography entries into different formats.
Select the format you require from the Bibliography Entries menu or select from the links below: