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Footnote - Referencing Guide

Citing Secondary Sources

Citing Secondary Sources

•  Use secondary sources sparingly; you should always try to locate the original source of information which is cited or quoted in a work which you have read. This is, however, not always possible: sometimes the original work is out of print, unavailable through your usual sources or not available in English.

  Reference may be made to an author's citation of, or quotation from, another's work.

  Distinguish between works cited and quoted.

•  Both the original and secondary source should be listed in your footnote.

•  A corresponding entry should also be listed in your bibliography.


1. William K. Clifford, "The Ethics of Belief," Lectures and Essays (London: Macmillan, 1901), II: 163-205, cited in Rik Peels, "The Ethics of Belief and Christian Faith as Commitment to Assumptions," Religious Studies 46, no. 1 (March 2010): 97-107.

2. Louis Zukofsky, "Sincerity and Objectification," Poetry 37, no. 5 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.