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Footnote - Referencing Guide

Citing Secondary Sources

Citing Secondary Sources

•  Use secondary sources sparingly

  Always try to locate the original source of information which is cited in a work that you have read.
   This is not always possible. For example, when the original work is:

  • out of print
  • unavailable through your usual sources
  • not available in English

  Reference may be made to an author's citation of, or quotation from, another's work.

  Distinguish between works cited and quoted.

•  Both the original and secondary source should be listed in your footnote.

•  A corresponding entry should also be listed in your bibliography.


1. William K. Clifford, "The Ethics of Belief," Lectures and Essays (London: Macmillan, 1901), II: 163-205, cited in Rik Peels, "The Ethics of Belief and Christian Faith as Commitment to Assumptions," Religious Studies 46, no. 1 (March 2010): 97-107.

2. Louis Zukofsky, "Sincerity and Objectification," Poetry 37, no. 5 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, books and web pages.