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Footnote - Referencing Guide


Standard Abbreviations

Standard abbreviations may be used in your citations.

A list of acceptable, commonly used abbreviations can be found in the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., sec. 10.42, pp. 589-596.

Some of the more often used examples are listed here:


Appendix​ app.
Article art.
Chapter chap.
Division div.

Editor, Edited by, Edition

Editors eds.

et alii, et aliae (and others) - from Latin

et al.
Manuscript MS
No date of publication n.d.
Number(s) no. (nos.)
No place n.p.
Page(s) p. (pp.)
Paragraph para.
Part pt.
Revised rev.
Section sec.
Series ser.
sub verso (under the word) - from Latin s.v.
Supplement Suppl.
Translator(s) trans.
Volume  vol.

Place Names

The names of US states and territories are abbreviated in the reference list; use the official two-letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviations.

To cite locations outside of the United States, commonly used English names for foreign cities should be used.

The names of Australian states may be abbreviated using standard Australia Post abbreviation.

For more information see Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., sec. 14.129 - 14.131, pp. 813-814.

Some examples:

Clevedon, U.K.: Channel View Publications

French's Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia

Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

London: Taylor & Francis

Newbury Park, CA: Sage

Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Education Australia

Pretoria: Unisa

Sydney: CCH Australia