Skip to Main Content

Footnote - Referencing Guide



  See Book Chapters guidance page to reference book chapters, as this page has guidance for referencing whole books.

  The authors' names are given as they appear on the publication you have used, i.e., use full first name where provided or first name initials where initials only are provided.

  List all authors in the bibliography.

  Capitalisation practice should be consistent.

  Titles and subtitles of books are given maximal capitalisation.

  All words other than prepositions, conjunctions, and definite and indefinite articles (a, an, the) are capitalised.

  Book titles are italicised when typed or underlined when handwritten.

  Information about places of publication should follow the guidelines for place names.

•  Include the DOI for e-books in your reference, if given.


Standard format for citation

Authored work:

Author, A. A., and B. B. Author. Title: Subtitle. Special credits (if appropriate). Edition. Place of publication: Name of Publisher, Year.


e-Book with DOI :

Author, A., and B. Author. Title of E-book: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of original publication.


e-Book no DOI :

From the Library:

Author, A., and B. Author. Title of E-book: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of original publication. Source.


From the Internet:

Author, A., and B. Author. Title of e-book: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of original publication. Internet address.


Edited work: 

Editor, A. A., and B. B. Editor, eds. Title: Subtitle. Special credits (if appropriate). Edition. Place of publication: Name of  Publisher, Year.


Single author or editor

Author full first name provided

Boyle, Jimmy. The Pain of Confinement: Prison Diaries. Edinburgh: Canongate, 1984.

Brown, Blain. Motion Picture and Video Lighting. 2nd ed. Boston: Focal Press, 2007. 50004-9.

Cox, David J. A Certain Share of Low Cunning: A History of the Bow Street Runners, 1792-1839. Uffculme, UK: Willan Publishing, 2010. Ebook Library.

Greenberg, Joel, ed. Of Prairie, Woods, and Water: Two Centuries of Chicago Nature Writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Author first names' initials only provided

Medley, D. J. The Church and the Empire, Being an Outline of the History of the Church from A.D. 1003 to A.D. 1304. 1910 ed. Salt Lake City: Project Gutenberg, 2005.

More than one author or editor

Author full first name provided

Dollimore, Johnathon, and Keith Hall, ed. Political Shakespeare: Essays in Cultural Materialism. 2nd ed. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1994.

MacIntosh, Angus, M.L. Samuels, Michael Benskin, Margaret Laing, and Keith Williamson. A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English. 4 vols. Aberdeen: Aberdeen UP, 1987.

Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue, Stuart G. Shanker and Talbot J. Taylor. Apes, Language and the Human Mind. New York: Oxford UP, 1998.

Later edition

Author full first name provided

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Edited by F. N. Robinson. 2nd ed. London: Oxford UP, 1957.

Newcomb, Horace, ed. Television: The Critical View. 6th ed. New York: Oxford UP, 2000.

Multivolume work

Author full first name provided

Summerfield, Geoffrey. Voices: An Anthology of Poetry and Pictures. 3 vols. London: Penguin, 1968.


Author full first name provided

Lynn, Richard John. Chinese Literature: A Draft Bibliography in Western European Languages. Oriental Monograph Series 24. Canberra: Australian National UP, 1979.

Anthology or compilation

Author first names' initials only provided

West, T. G., ed. and trans. Symbolism: An Anthology. London: Methuen, 1980.


Moliere. Five Plays: Moliere. Translated by John Wood. Melbourne: Penguin, 1953.

Two or more books by the same author

Author full first name provided

Pilger, John. Distant Voices. London: Vintage, 1992.

---. A Secret Country. London: Cape, 1989.


Australian Copyright Council. Copyright for Book Publishers: A Practical Guide. Redfern, NSW: ACC, 1997.

Government publications

Australia. Department of Aboriginal Affairs. Programs in Action for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: Achievements. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service for Department of Aboriginal Affairs, 1989.

Western Australia. Department of Treasury and Finance. An Economic History of Western Australia Since Colonial Settlement: 175th Anniversary of Colonial Settlement 1829-2004. Perth: The Department, 2004. Research Paper.

Please Note: Documents authored by government departments are cited following the jurisdiction they report to. Precede the department name with Australia., Western Australia., etc.

See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, books, and web pages.