Murdoch Home Page

Footnote Style: Home

A guide to Footnote referencing style for Murdoch University students and staff

This Guide has Been Updated!

This guide was updated in December 2017 to reflect changes to the Footnote referencing style as detailed in the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, which was released in September 2017.

This new edition of the Chicago Manual of Style has made significant changes to the way some sources are cited in this referencing style, including:

Please check carefully to ensure that your references for all sources are correct.

About Footnote Style

Footnote Style uses a notational method of referencing when referring to a source of information within the text of a document.

In its simplest form, a number in superscript format placed in the text of the essay, indicates the relevant footnote:

Citations are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and each citation corresponds to a numbered footnote at the bottom of the page containing publication information about the source:


A footnote lists the author, title and publication details of a work and subsequent citations are given in a shortened form.

A full bibliography of all works cited must be provided at the end of the paper.

Bibliography entries contain all the information that someone needs to follow up your source and are arranged alphabetically by the primary author's surname:

 See Bibliography Entries or All Examples for details on how to construct references for specific resources such as books, journals and web pages.

Important Information

Created November 2010; modified December 2017

Please remember to check with your unit co-ordinator or tutor before submitting your assignments, as their style preference may vary from the guidelines presented here.

When using EndNote referencing software, as the current version of EndNote has not yet been updated to reflect the changes made by the 17th edition, please continue to use the following output style - Chicago 16th Footnote. For information about EndNote, please see the EndNote Guide.


This LibGuide follows the principles and examples given in the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (2017).