Citation ExamplesCiting Personal CommunicationsCiting Secondary Sources
A-V MaterialsBook ChaptersBooksConference PapersE-booksE-journalsElectronic DocumentsInternet DocumentsJournal ArticlesNewspaper ArticlesPodcastsReadersTheses
Part 1: A-V Materials to BooksPart 2: Conference Papers to E-journalsPart 3: Internet Documents to Newspaper ArticlesPart 4: Podcasts to Theses
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Footnote Style  

A guide to Footnote referencing style for Murdoch University students and staff
Last Updated: Oct 29, 2014 URL: Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

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Important Information

Created November 2010; modified July 2012

Please use the tabs across the top to navigate your way to further information and examples.

Please note: There have been a number of major changes in the Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition including:

  • Formatting of book chapter titles
  • Formatting of journal article titles
  • The requirement for a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) in the citation of electronic sources when available
  • The ceasing of use of access dates for electronic documents

Please remember to check with your unit co-ordinator or tutor before submitting your assignments, as their style preference may vary from the guidelines presented here.



This LibGuide follows the principles and examples given in the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (2010).


About Footnote Style

Footnote Style uses a notational method of referencing when referring to a source of information within the text of a document.

In its simplest form, a number in superscript format placed in the text of the essay, indicates the relevant footnote:

Citations are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and each citation corresponds to a numbered footnote at the bottom of the page containing publication information about the source:


A footnote lists the author, title and publication details of a work and subsequent citations are given in a shortened form.

A full bibliography of all works cited must be provided at the end of the paper.

Bibliography entries contain all the information that someone needs to follow up your source and are arranged alphabetically by the primary author's surname:

 See Bibliography Entries or All Examples for details on how to construct references for specific resources such as books, journals and web pages.


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