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MLA Referencing Guide

MLA Style

This Referencing Guide has been updated

This referencing guide has been updated and now conforms with the principles and examples given in the MLA Handbook (9th ed., 2021).
Only continuing students who have already commenced theses or other major works should continue to use MLA 8th edition.

This edition has updated in text citations for:

  • Images

This edition has updated Works Cited list entries for:

  • Assignments
  • A-V Materials
  • Books
  • E-books
  • E-journals
  • Personal Communications
  • Social Media
  • Theses

About MLA Style

There are two parts to referencing: the citations within the text of your paper and the Works Cited list at the end of your paper.

The aim of the MLA style is to be brief and to provide only as much detail as is necessary to identify the work cited and the location of the information in that work. The flow of the text should not be interrupted.

Use only the surname of the author(s) followed by the page, chapter or section numbers if you need to be specific:

No distinction is made between books, journal articles, internet documents or other formats except for electronic documents that do not provide page numbers. In this case use the paragraph number, if available, with the abbreviation par.

The full details of the source are given in a Works Cited list at the end of the document.

References in the Works Cited list contain all of the information that someone needs to locate your source and are arranged alphabetically by author:

                         

See Works Cited List Entries or All Examples for details on how to construct references for specific resources such as books, journals and web pages.

Important Information

Created July 2010; modified July 2021

When using EndNote referencing software, please be aware that EndNote have not  yet released a MLA 9th edition output style file. Meanwhile, please use the following output style - MLA 8th edition and modify references as necessary. For information about EndNote, please see the EndNote Guide.

Please remember to check with your unit co-ordinator or tutor before submitting your assignments, as their style preference may vary from the guidelines presented here.

Acknowledgement

This referencing guide follows the principles and examples given in the MLA Handbook (9th ed., 2021).

Only continuing students who have already commenced theses or other major works should continue to use MLA 8th edition.