Skip to Main Content

MLA - Referencing Guide

A-V Materials


Do include the protocol (http:// or https://) with DOIs

Do not include the protocol (http:// or https://) in URLs unless hyperlinking to the resource (unless using a software program such as EndNote that does not allow links without the protocol).

 Cite by title if no author or producer is given.

Additional information must be provided (depending on the type of electronic publication) to correctly identify that you accessed the document in an electronic format.

The authors' names are given as they appear on the publication you have used, i.e., use full first name where provided or first name initials where initials only are provided.

Titles are given maximal capitalisation (title case).


Standard formats for citation

Television or radio programme:

"Title of Episode." Title of Programme, credit, season, episode number, Name of Network, [Day and Abbrev. month] Year.


Cinematic work:

Title of Work: Subtitle. Credit, version, Distributor, Year.


Sound recording:

Artist Surname, Given Names. "Title of Song." Title of Work: Subtitle, credit, Publisher, Year, internet address [if applicable].


YouTube/Vimeo video:

"Title of Video." Title of Site, uploaded by credit, Day Abbrev. Month Year of publication, internet address.



Bowling for Columbine. Written and directed by Michael Moore, AV Channel, 2003.

Radio programme

"Black Soccer Heroes." Message Stick, presented by Daniel Browning, guest speaker Dr. John Maynard, ABC Radio, 9 June 2006.

Sound recording

Bolton, Geoffrey C. Towards an Australian Environmental History, Media Services, Murdoch University, 1975.

St. Laurance Chamber Choir. Commemoration, Ritual and Performance: The Iberian Connection: Medieval and Renaissance Music from the St Laurence Chamber Choir, directed by N. McEwan, Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney, 2005.

Television programme

"Big Fish, Little Fish." Four Corners, presented by Chris Masters, ABC Television, 27 Mar. 2006.

Video recording

Tackling Bullies: An Australian Perspective. Written and presented by Geoff Russell, Video Classroom, 1995.


Blade Runner. Directed by Ridley Scott, original release, Warner Bros., 1982.

YouTube/Vimeo video

"Medieval Helpdesk with English Subtitles." YouTube, uploaded by NRK, 26 Feb. 2007,

See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, books, and web pages.