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MLA - Referencing Guide

Journal articles


More specific information is available for Books and Book Chapters.

Include the DOI of the article.

Include the protocol (http:// or https://) with DOIs

If a DOI is not available, include the Internet address.

Include the DOI or Internet address for articles sourced from the Internet.

Do not include the protocol (http:// or https://) in URLs unless hyperlinking to the resource (unless using a software program such as EndNote that does not allow links without the protocol).

 Cite by title if no author or editor is given.

Additional information must be provided (depending on the type of electronic publication) to correctly identify that you accessed the document in an electronic format.

The authors' names are given as they appear on the publication you have used, i.e., use full first name where provided or first name initials where initials only are provided.

Article titles, journal titles and sub-titles are given maximal capitalisation (title case).

Article titles are enclosed within quotation marks and journal titles are italicised if typed or underlined if handwritten.

Give the volume number followed immediately by a comma and the issue number.

Use p. for a single page number and pp. for multiple page numbers.

Include the name of the full text database used to source the article (e.g. Academic OneFile, ProQuest, and JSTOR).





Standard format for citation

From a full text database:

Author's Surname, Given Names, and Given Names Author's Surname. "Title of Article: Subtitle." Title of Journal, vol., no., year, pp. pages. Database Name, doi or internet address.


From the Internet:

Author's Surname, Given Names, and Given Names Author's Surname. "Title of Article: Subtitle." Title of Journal, vol., no., year, pp. pages, doi or Internet address.


Print journal:

Author's Surname, Given Names, and Given Names Author's Surname. "Title of Article: Subtitle." Title of Journal, vol., no., year, pp. page numbers.


Journal article from a full text database

Author full first name provided

Hill, Thomas D. "Beowulf's Roman Rites: Roman ritual and Germanic tradition." The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 325-35. Academic OneFile,

Holmes, Christopher. "The Limits of World Literature." Literature Compass, vol. 13, no. 9, 2016, pp. 572–84. Wiley Online,

Journal article abstract accessed from online database

Author first names' initials only provided

Spencer, H.L. "Book and Verse: A Guide to Middle English Biblical Literature." Review of English Studies, vol. 52, no. 206, 2001, p. 249, Abstract. ProQuest,

Please note: Abstract citations are only included in a Works Cited list if the abstract is substantial or if the full text of the article could not be accessed.

Journal article from the Internet: Open access

Author full first name provided

Chartier, Roger. "Everything and Nothing: The Many Lives of William Shakespeare." Journal of Early Modern Studies, vol. 5, 2016, pp. 17-26,

Journal article from the Internet: Subscribed

Author full first name provided

Etherington, Ben, and Jarad Zimbler. "Field, Material, Technique: On Renewing Postcolonial Literary Criticism." The Journal of Commonwealth Literature, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 279-97,

Journal article from a print journal

Author full first name provided

Boyd, Fenice B., and Chinwe H. Ikpeze. "Navigating a Literacy Landscape: Teaching Conceptual Understanding With Multiple Text Types." Journal of Literacy Research, vol. 39, no. 2, 2007, pp. 217-48.

Hallin, Daniel C. "Sound Bite News: Television Coverage of Elections, 1968-1988." Journal of Communication, vol. 42, no.2, 1992, pp. 5-24.

Yeh, Michelle. "The 'Cult of Poetry' in Contemporary China." Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 55, no. 1, 1996, pp. 51-80.

Author first names' initials only provided

Kyratsis, A. "Talk and Interaction Among Children and the Co-construction of Peer Groups and Peer Culture." Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 33, 2004, pp. 231-47.

Journal article from a print journal: No author

"The Pain of Being a Caffeine Freak." New Scientist, vol. 172, no. 2311, 6 Oct. 2001, p.27.

See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, books, and web pages.


A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique alpha-numeric string used to identify electronic documents and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet.

A DOI is assigned to a document when it is published.

All DOI numbers begin with followed by 10 and contain a prefix of four or more digits and a suffix separated by a slash:

A DOI is usually located with the author and title information or on the first page of an electronic article. You may need to open the abstract or full text of an article to find it.

When referencing an electronic document:

 Include the DOI if one is assigned.

 If no DOI is assigned, include the name of the database or the internet address as appropriate.