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MLA - Referencing Guide

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To see more information about the formats below, either click on the format headings in this list of examples or hover your cursor over the Works Cited List Entries menu and select the format you want.

Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Assignment from Another Unit (Jones) Jones, Bryan K. 2016. “The Importance of Critical Thinking.” BAR100: Academic Learning Skills, Murdoch University, 2016.

A-V Materials
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
DVD (Bowling for Columbine) Bowling for Columbine. Written and directed by Michael Moore, AV Channel, 2003.
Radio Programme (Black Soccer Heroes) "Black Soccer Heroes." Message Stick, presented by Daniel Browning, guest speaker Dr. John Maynard, ABC Radio, 9 June 2006.
Sound Recording (St. Laurence Chamber Choir) St. Laurence Chamber Choir. Commemoration, Ritual and Performance: The Iberian Connection: Medieval and Renaissance Music from the St Laurence Chamber Choir, directed by N. McEwan, Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney, 2005.
Television Programme (Big Fish) "Big Fish, Little Fish." Four Corners, presented by Chris Masters, ABC Television, 27 Mar. 2006.
Film (Blade Runner) Blade Runner. Directed by Ridley Scott, original release, Warner Bros., 1982.
Video Recording (Tackling Bullies) Tackling Bullies: An Australian Perspective. Written and presented by Geoff Russell, Video Classroom, 1995.
YouTube/Vimeo Video (Medieval Helpdesk) "Medieval Helpdesk with English Subtitles." YouTube, uploaded by NRK, 26 Feb. 2007,

Book Chapters
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Chapter or Article in Edited E-book (Tygstmp) Tygstmp, Fredetik. "Changing Spaces: Salman Rushdie's Mapping of Post-Colonial Territories." Literary Landscapes: From Modernism to Postcolonialism, edited by Attie de Lange, et al., e-book ed., Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, pp.198-213. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Chapter or Article in Edited Print Book

(Sweeney 58)

Sweeney, John. "The New Internationalism." Global Backlash: Citizen Initiatives in a Just World Economy, edited by Robin Broad, MacMillan Press, 2002, pp. 55-62.
Article from an Electronic Encyclopaedia (Courtright and Smudde) Courtright, Jeffrey L., and Peter M. Smudde. "Power and Public Relations." The International Encyclopedia of Communication, edited by Wolfgang Donsbach, e-book ed., Blackwell Publishing, 2008. Wiley Online Library,
Article in an Encyclopaedia


Fowler, Alastair. "Genre." International Encyclopedia of Communications, edited by Erik Barnouw, et al., vol. 2, Oxford UP, c1989, pp. 215-17.

Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Book Including Page Numbers

(Pilger 225-6)

Pilger, John. Distant Voices. Vintage, 1992.
Book: Single Author (Boyle) Boyle, Jimmy. The Pain of Confinement: Prison Diaries. Canongate, 1984.
Book: Two Authors or Editors

(Dollimore and Hall)

Dollimore, Johnathon, and Keith Hall, editors. Political Shakespeare: Essays in Cultural Materialism. 2nd ed., Cornell UP, 1994.

E-book: 3 or More Authors (Bass et al.) Bass, Len, et al. Software Architecture in Practice. 2nd ed., e-book ed., Addison Wesley, 2003. Safari Books Online,
Book: 3 or More Authors

(MacIntosh et al.)

MacIntosh, Angus, et al. A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English. Aberdeen UP, 1987. 4 vols.
Book: Organisation as Author (American Library Association) American Library Association. Libraries: Culture, History, and Society. Pennsylvania State UP, 2017.
Book: Organisation as Author and Publisher (Copyright for Book Publishers) Copyright for Book Publishers: A Practical Guide. Australian Copyright Council, 1997.
Book: Government Agency as Author (Australia, Council for the Arts.) Australia, Council for the Arts. Writing: Protocols for Producing Indigenous Australian Writing. 2nd ed., ACA, 2007.
Book: Editor, Later Edition


Newcomb, Horace, editor. Television: The Critical View. 6th ed., Oxford UP, 2000.

Conference Papers
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Conference Paper in Print


Mann, Jill. "Chaucer and the 'Woman Question.'" This Noble Craft: Proceedings of the Tenth Research Symposium of the Dutch and Belgian University Teachers of Old and Middle English and Historical Linguistics, Utrecht, 19-20 January 1989. Edited by Erik Kooper, Rodopi, 1991, pp.173-88.
Conference Paper from the Internet (Zheng et al.) Zheng, Hongyan, et al. "Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Efficacy of English Acquisition in CALL Environment." International Conference on Computer Technology and Development, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, 13-15 November 2009. Vol. 2., IEEE Computer Society, 2009, pp. 494-496. IEEE Xplore,
Conference Proceedings (Balakian and Wilhelm) Balakian, Anna, and James J. Wilhelm, editors. Proceedings of the Xth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association: New York, NY, 1982. Garland, 1985.

Course Materials
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Lectures (recordings accessed via LMS) (Jones) Jones, Adam. "The Business of Healthcare Provision: Strategies for Management." MBS529: Strategic Health Leadership and Management, 1 Apr. 2023, Murdoch University. Class lecture. 
PowerPoint slides (accessed via LMS) (Brown) Brown, Alan. "5 Strategies for Effective Leadership for Healthcare Provision." MBS529: Strategic Health Leadership and Management, 1 Apr. 2023, Murdoch University. PowerPoint slides.

Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Image/Photograph/Artwork from a Book (Leibovitz 72) Leibovitz, Annie. Olympic Portraits. Little Brown, 1996.
Reproduction in a Book (Bedford 154) Bedford, Paddy. Dingo Dreaming. 2001. Reproduced in McCulloch, Susan, and Emily McCulloch Childs. McCulloch's Contemporary Aboriginal Art: The Complete Guide. McCulloch & McCulloch Australian Art Books, 2008, p. 154.
Image from a Book Chapter

(Ardagna et al. Figure 1)

Ardagna, Claudio Agostino, et al. "Open-Source Solution to Secure E-Government Services." Encyclopedia of Digital Government, edited by Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko and Matti Malkia, e-book ed., Idea Group Reference, 2007, pp.1300-05. IGI Global,
Image from a Journal Article (Yeh and Xu Table 1) Yeh, Quey-Jen, and Xiaojun Xu. "The Effect of Confucian Work Ethics on Learning About Science and Technology Knowledge and Morality." Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 95, no. 1, 2010, pp. 111-128. ProQuest,
Image from a Newspaper (Leunig 24) Leunig, Michael. "Thoughts of a Baby Lying in a Child Care Centre." The Sydney Morning Herald, Jul. 27 1995, p. 24
Image from a Database (The Making of a Monologue min. 10:10) The Making of a Monologue: Robert Wilson's Hamlet. Directed by Marion Kessel, Cinema Guild, 1995. Theatre in Video,
Online Artwork (Nolan) Nolan, Sydney. The Encounter. 1946. National Gallery of Australia,
Online Image (Newbold) Newbold, Curtis R. Can I Use that Picture?: The Terms, Laws, and Ethics for Using Copyrighted Pictures. 2014. The Visual Communication Guy,
Online Map (Google Maps) Google Maps. The British Library, London, UK. 2015. Google,
Original Image/Artwork (Viewed in a Gallery or Collection) (Angus) Angus, James. Gorilla, Gorilla, Gorilla. 2006, Art Gallery of Western Australia.

Internet Content
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry

Analytics Report

(Google Analytics) Google Analytics. Analytics 3.1: Water Corporation Domain Only (Excluding Internal Traffic and Bots%2Fspiders) Overview 20160701-201706302017, Analytics 3.1 Water Corporation Domain Only (Excluding Internal Traffic and Bots%2FSpiders) Overview 20160701-20170630.pdf.
App / Software (Student Services Australia) Student Services Australia. Lost on Campus by StudentVIP. Version 4.2.6, 2020, Apple App Store,

Blog Post

(Morris) Morris, Sylvia. "Anticipating Macbeth on Film." The Shakespeare Blog, 9 June 2015,
Blog Post Comment (Eeple) Eeple, Mike [@mike_eeple]. Comment on "Your Top 5" BoardGameGeek, 3 Nov. 2023,
Document (Miranti et al.)

Miranti, Riyana, et al. Calling Australia Home: The Characteristics and Contributions of Australia's Migrants. National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM), 2010,

eBook (Nesbit) Nesbit, E. Ballads and Lyrics of Socialism. London, 1908. Victorian Women Writers Project, edited by Perry Willett, e-book ed., Indiana U., May 2000,
Email, Text or SnapChat Message (Brown) Brown, Collette. Text message to the author. 23 Dec. 2015.
Facebook Page (Creative Australia) "Creative Australia." Facebook,  Accessed 3 Nov. 2023,
Facebook Post
(Royal Opera House)
Royal Opera House. "A Sneak-Peek at Rehearsals for Balanchine and Robbins!" Facebook, 2 June 2021,
Facebook Post Comment (Aymerich) Aymerich, Mauricio. Comment on "We are Delighted to Announce Our Shortlist for the 2021 International Booker Prize." The Booker Prizes, Facebook, 23 Apr. 2021, 
Forum / Discussion Board (Writing Forums) Writing Forums. Accessed 3 Nov. 2023.
Forum Post (kittymama) kittymama. "What Are 3 Things You Wish You Knew." Writing Forums, 1 Nov. 2023, Accessed 3 Nov.2023.
Forum Post Comment (Veith) Veith, Rod. "If You Have Proof of Purchase Then You Should be at Little Risk as Long as You Paid Fair Market Value." LawAnswers, 1 Feb. 2023,
Game (Persson and Bergensten) Persson, Mark and Jens Bergensten. Minecraft. Mojang Synergies AB, 2011,
Government Publication (Western Australia. Office of Multicultural Interests.) Western Australia, Office of Multicultural Interests. Language Services Policy 2014 and Guidelines. OMI, 2014,
Instagram Post

Atwood, Margaret [@therealmargaretatwood]. Photo of Songs for Murdered Sisters cover. Instagram, 17 Mar. 2021,


Instagram Post Comment (Roblwood) Roblwood. Comment on "It’s Weird Going Back and Looking at Scripts..." Tim Minchin [@timminchin], Instagram, 28 July 2020,
Legislation (Screen Australia Act 2008 (Cth), sec. 2) Screen Australia Act 2008 (Cth).
Podcast (Miller) Miller, Toby. Australian Citizenship, 1912: A Model for the World?, 2013 Sir Walter Murdoch Lecture. Murdoch University, 2013,
Podcast Radio Programme (Black Hole) “Black Hole Stellar Feeding Frenzy.” StarStuff, reported by Stuart Gary, 23 Dec. 2007, ABC News Radio,
Podcast Television Programme (Bad Borders) “Bad Borders.” VICE, season 1, episode 2, HBO, 2016, SBS OnDemand,
Poem (Nesbit) Nesbit, E. "Marching Song." Ballads and Lyrics of Socialism. London, 1908. Victorian Women Writers Project, edited by Perry Willett, e-book ed., Indiana U., May 2000,
TikTok video (Parafina) Parafina, Archie [@nursearchie]. "How to Become a Registered Nurse in Australia as an Internationally Qualified Nurse?" TikTok, 27 Oct. 2023,
Webpage (Cagliostro) Cagliostro, Dino. "Depression: Tell Me All I Need to Know About Depression." Psycom, 12 Sept. 2023,
Whole Website (Jane Austen Society of America) Jane Austen Society of North America. Austen on Film, 24 Aug. 2015,
Website Comment (Generalgtony) Generalgtony. Comment on "Black England: No Wall of Separation?" Jane Austen's World, 26 Apr. 2021, 04:49 am,
X Post / Tweet
Maiden, Samantha [@samanthamaiden]. "To be a good journalist, in my opinion, you need to be a completely obsessive, detail person. I don’t know who did this but whoever they are they are a very good journalist." Twitter, Mar. 30 2021,
YouTube / TED / Vimeo Video (Medieval Helpdesk) "Medieval Helpdesk with English Subtitles." YouTube, uploaded by NRK, 26 Feb. 2007,
YouTube comment (Kirk) Kirk, James. Comment on "Medieval Helpdesk with English Subtitles." YouTube, 12 Feb. 2017,

Journal Articles
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Journal Article from a Full Text Database (Holmes 574-6) Holmes, Christopher. "The Limits of World Literature." Literature Compass, vol. 13, no. 9, 2016, pp. 572–84. Wiley Online,
Journal Article from the Internet (Chartier) Chartier, Roger. "Everything and Nothing: The Many Lives of William Shakespeare." Journal of Early Modern Studies, vol. 5, 2016, pp. 17-26,
Journal Article in Print (Hallin) Hallin, Daniel C. "Sound Bite News: Television Coverage of Elections, 1968-1988." Journal of Communication, vol. 42, no.2, 1992, pp. 5-24.
Journal Article in Print Including a Page Number

(Yeh 56)

Yeh, Michelle. "The 'Cult of Poetry' in Contemporary China." Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 55, no. 1, 1996, pp. 51-80.

Newspaper Articles
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Newspaper Article in Print (Buchanan) Buchanan, Rachel. "Truth and Valour: Anzac Day, the Myth." The Sydney Morning Herald,  24 Apr. 1999, Good Weekend, pp. 43-44.
Newspaper Article from the Internet (Wakin) Wakin, Daniel J. "After Music From a Bridge, Why Not a Tower?" The New York Times, 8 Jul. 2010,
Newspaper Article from a Full Text Database (Brown) Brown, Malcolm. "Prolific Writer Was Inspired by Landscape." The Sydney Morning Herald, 17 June 2010, p. 24. Factiva,

Personal Communications
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Discussion Board or Forum Conversation (Menard) Menard, Pierre. Comment on "Charles Baudelaire" thread. Literature Network Forums, 19 Oct. 2012, 10:18:00,
ChatBot (ChatGPT) (OpenAl) OpenAI. “ChatGPT”. Welcome to ChatGPT, 
Email or Text Message (Brown) Brown, Collette. Text message to the author. 23 Dec. 2015.
Letter or Memo (Parker) Parker, Dorothy. Letter to Robert Benchley. 13 May 1920. Manuscript.
Personal Interview (Denton) Denton, Andrew. Interview. Conducted by Joseph Lang, 14 Feb. 2005.
Telephone Conversation (Leunig) Leunig, Michael. Personal communication with the author. 6 July 2017.

Readers/Study Guides
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Study Guide and Reader (Dillard) Dillard, Annie. “When You Write.” The Writing Life. Pan Books, 1990, pp. 3-21. Reprinted in Introduction to Creative Arts (EGL114) Study Guide and Reader. Murdoch University, 2004.
Reader (Vickery and Bishop) Vicary, D., and B. Bishop. "Western Psychotherapeutic Practice: Engaging Aboriginal People in Culturally Appropriate and Respectful Ways." Australian Psychologist, vol. 40, no. 1, 2005, pp. 8-19. Reprinted in Introduction to Psychology and Culture (PSY246): Unit Reader 2009. Murdoch University, 2009.

Secondary Sources
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Secondary Source Lantolf and Thorne (qtd. in Ipek 158) Ipek, Helya. "Comparing and Contrasting First and Second Language Acquisition: Implications for Language Teachers." English Language Teaching, vol. 2, no. 2, 2009, pp. 155-63.

Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Unpublished Thesis (Woznica) Woznica, Mirek. A Counter-History of Art. 1997. Murdoch U, PhD thesis.
Published Thesis (Darling) Darling, Charles W. Giver of Due Regard: The Poetry of Richard Wilbur. 1977. U. of CT, PhD dissertation. Merganser Press, 1979.
Thesis from a Full Text Database (Kane) Kane, Sonia. Acts of Coercion: Father-Daughter Relationships and the Pressure to Confess in British Women's Fiction, 1778-1814. 2003City U of New York, PhD dissertation. ProQuest,
Thesis from a Repository (Chew) Chew, Cynthia Mei-Li. "It's Stupid Being a Girl!": The Tomboy Character in Selected Children’s Series Fiction. 2009. Murdoch U, PhD thesis. Murdoch University Research Repository,