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MLA - Referencing Guide

Personal Communications


 Personal communications include

  • AI generated text  e.g. ChatGPT
  • conversations
  • electronic bulletin boards
  • emails
  • interviews
  • letters
  • memos
  • messages from discussion lists
  • online chats
  • personal interviews
  • telephone conversations
  • text messages

Cite all personal communications in the Works Cited List. 

Do not include the protocol (http:// or https://) in URLs unless hyperlinking to the resource (unless using a software program such as EndNote that does not allow links without the protocol).

 Cite by title if no author or editor is given.

Additional information must be provided (depending on the type of electronic publication) to correctly identify that you accessed the document in an electronic format.

The authors' names are given as they appear on the publication you have used, i.e., use full first name where provided or first name initials where initials only are provided.

Titles are given maximal capitalisation (title case)


Standard format for citation

ChatGPT or other generative AI:

Author. “Name of AI”. Website name, Web address. 


Discussion board or forum conversation:

Author's Surname, Given Names. Comment on "Title or Description" thread. Title of Discussion Board or Forum, Date of communication, Time of communication, Internet address.


Email or text message:

Author's Surname, Given Names. Details of email or text. Date of communication.


Letters or memo:

Author's Surname, Given Names. Details of letter or memo. Date of communication. Manuscript or typescript.


Personal interview:

Subject's Surname, Given Names. Interview. Conducted by Interviewer's Name, Date of interview.


Subject's Surname, Given Names. Telephone interview with the author. Date of interview.


Telephone conversation:

Participant's Surname, Given Names. Personal communication with the author. Date of communication.


Generative AI (ChatGPT)

OpenAI. “ChatGPT”. Welcome to ChatGPT, 

Discussion board or forum conversation

Menard, Pierre. Comment on "Charles Baudelaire" thread. Literature Network Forums, 19 Oct. 2012, 10:18:00,

Email or text message

Brown, Collette. Text message to the author. 23 Dec. 2015.

Fisher, John. Email to the author. 14 Apr. 2020.

Messingham, Penny. Email to the Copyright Council. 5 June 2018.

Letter or memo

Lawrence, Ruth. Memo to the Publications Standards Committee. 26 Apr. 1989. Typescript.

Orpington, Lucy. Letter to the author. 12 Jan. 2012. Typescript.

Parker, Dorothy. Letter to Robert Benchley. 13 May 1920. Manuscript.

Personal interview

Denton, Andrew. Interview. Conducted by Joseph Lang, 14 Feb. 2005.

Dyson, Alan. Telephone interview with the author. 18 Oct. 2019.

Telephone conversation

Leunig, Michael. Personal communication with the author. 6 July 2017.

See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, books, and web pages.