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Chicago - Referencing Guide

AI Generated Content


Guidelines for citing Copilot and other generative AI are given in The Chicago Manual of Style Online:

 credit the generative AI tool when you reproduce its words within your own work

For example, "(ChatGPT, June 11, 2024)."

 the credit information should be put in the text or in a note

 do not add a reference to a bibliography or reference list unless you include a publicly available URL


How do I reference something created by generative AI?

It is recommended that references for generative AI content be based on the referencing guidance for

Rather than citing Generative AI as a source of information, you would, instead, be citing the use of a tool - Generative AI.

References should provide clear and accurate information for each source and should identify where they have been used in your work.

Generative AI tools such as Copilot cannot accurately cite their own sources.
Any references they provide may be false or non-existent – you should always check the original source for any references that are generated.



Developer. Year of version. Title of App. Edition, version. Operating system. Additional information of relevance such as URL/author/composer/animator etc.





Microsoft. (2023). Microsoft Copilot for Microsoft 365 [AI text generation tool].

OpenAI. (2022). DALL-E (Version 2) [Artificial intelligence system].


See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, books, social media, and web pages.

Reference List Entries

For ease of use, this guide divides reference list entries into different formats.
Select the format you require from the Reference List Entries menu or select from the links below: