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To see more information about the formats below, either click on the format headings in this list of examples or hover your cursor over the Reference List Entries menu and select the format you want.

Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
AI generative tools (Microsoft 2023) Microsoft. 2023. Microsoft Copilot for Microsoft 365 [AI text generation tool].

Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Assignment from Another Unit (Reid 2016) Reid, Sian F. 2016. “The Importance of Scientific Method.” Unpublished MS, BSC100: Building Blocks for Science Students. Murdoch, WA: Murdoch University.

A-V Materials
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
DVD (Moore 2003) Moore, Michael. 2003. Bowling for Columbine. Written and directed by Michael Moore. Melbourne: AV Channel. DVD, 120 min.
Radio Programme (Browning 2006) Browning, Daniel. 2006. "Black Soccer Heroes." Message Stick. Guest speaker Dr. John Maynard. Aired on June 9, 2006 on ABC Radio, 4:25 min.
Sound Recording (St. Laurence Chamber Choir 2005) St. Laurance Chamber Choir. 2005. Commemoration, Ritual and Performance: The Iberian Connection: Medieval and Renaissance Music from the St Laurence Chamber Choir.  Directed by N. McEwan. Sydney, NSW: Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney. Compact disc, 45: 24 min.
Television Programme (Masters 2006) Masters, Chris. 2006. "Big Fish, Little Fish." Four Corners. Aired on March 27, 2006 on ABC Television, 45 min.
Video Recording (Attenborough 1990) Attenborough, David. 1990. Life on Earth: A Natural History. Produced by Richard Brock and John Sparks. US: Warner Home Video. Videorecording (VHS), 2 videocassettes, 233 min. each.
YouTube/Vimeo Video (NRK 2007) NRK. 2007. "Medieval Helpdesk with English Subtitles." Uploaded on February 26, 2007. YouTube video, 2:44 min.

Book Chapters
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Chapter or Article in an edited E-book (Haight and Gobster 2009) Haight, Robert G., and Paul H. Gobster. 2009. "Social and Economic Considerations for Planning Wildlife Conservation in Large Landscapes." In Models for Planning Wildlife Conservation in Larger Landscapes, edited by Joseph J. Millspaugh and Frank R. Thompson III, 123-152. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Chapter or Article in an Edited Print Book

(Rapping 2004)

Rapping, Elayne. 2004. "Aliens, Nomads, Mad Dogs, and Road Warriors: The Changing Face of Criminal Violence on TV." In Reality TV: Remaking Television Culture, edited by Susan Murray and Laurie Ouellette, 214-230. New York: New York University Press.
Article in an Encyclopaedia

Incorporate into text

These items are not listed in the reference list.

Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Book: Including Page Numbers

(Viner 2010, 151-152)

Viner, Bradley. 2010. Success in Veterinary Practice: Maximising Clinical Outcomes and Personal Well-being. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Book: Single Author (Nicholas 2010) Nicholas, F. W. 2010. Introduction to Veterinary Genetics. 3rd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Book: Two Authors

(Rosenfeld and Dial 2010)

Rosenfeld, Andrew J., and Sharon M. Dial. 2010. Clinical Pathology for the Veterinary Team. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell.
E-book: Three authors (Bass, Clements, and Kazman 2003) Bass, Len, Paul Clements, and Rick Kazman. 2003. Software Architecture in Practice. 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley. Safari e-book.
Book: 4 or More Authors

 (Millon et al. 2000)

Millon, Theodore, Roger Davis, Carrie Millon, Luis Escovar, and Sarah Meagher. 2000. Personality Disorders in Modern Life. New York: Wiley.

Book: Different Works by Same Author in Same Year (Gilbert 1972a)

(Gilbert 1972b)

Gilbert, Sandra M. 1972a. Acts of Attention: The Poems of D. H. Lawrence. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Gilbert, Sandra M. 1972b. Emily's Bread: Poems. New York: Norton.

Book: Organisation as Author (Ansett Transport Industries Ltd 1984)

Ansett Transport Industries Ltd. 1984. Annual Report 1983-84. Melbourne: ATI.

Book: Government Agency as Author (Australia. Department of Aboriginal Affairs 1989)

Australia. Department of Aboriginal Affairs. 1989. Programs in Action for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: Achievements. Canberra: AGPS.

Book: Editor (Woodward 2009)

Woodward, K. N., ed. 2009. Veterinary Pharmacovigilance: Adverse Reactions to Veterinary Medicinal Products. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Book: 2 or More Editors

(Butler and Walbert 1986)

Butler, J. Douglas, and David F. Walbert, eds. 1986. Abortion, Medicine and the Law. New York: Facts on File Publications.
Book: Different Editions

(Ettinger and Feldman 2010)

Ettinger, Stephen J., and Edward C. Feldman, eds. 2010. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine: Diseases of the Dog and the Cat. 7th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.  

Conference Papers
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Conference Paper in Print

(Singh and Best 2004)

Singh, Kamal, and Gary Best. 2004. "Film Induced Tourism: Motivations of Visitors to the Hobbiton Movie Set as Featured in 'The Lord of the Rings'." In Proceedings of the 1st International Tourism and Media Conference, Melbourne, 2004, 98-111. Melbourne: Tourism Research Unit, Monash University.
Conference Paper from the Internet (Beckermann 2010) Beckermann, M. 2010. "Regeneration Following Traumatic Brain Injury: Signals, Signposts and Scaffolds." Paper presented at the Biomedical Sciences and Engineering Conference (BSEC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, May 25-26, 2010.
Conference Proceedings (Hall, Meacham, and Shapiro 1989) Hall, Kira, Michael Meacham and Richard Shapiro, ed. 1989. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General Session and Parasession on Theoretical Issues in Language Reconstruction, February 18-20, 1989. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.

Course Materials
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Lectures (recordings accessed via LMS)

(Jones 2023)

Jones, Adam. 2023. "The Business of Healthcare Provision: Strategies for Management." MBS529: Strategic Health Leadership and Management. Class lecture recorded at Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, April 1, 2023.

PowerPoint slides (accessed via LMS) (Brown 2023) Brown, Alan. "5 strategies for effective leadership for healthcare provision." MBS529: Strategic Health Leadership and Management. PowerPoint slides from Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, April 1, 2023, on Moodle.

Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry

(Edwards et al. 2019)

Edwards, Petra, Susan Hazel, Michelle McArthur, Bradley P. Smith, James A. Serpell, and Matthew Browne. 2019. C-BARQ Data Used in Investigating Risk Factors Contributing to Dogs Fearful of the Vet. Adelaide: University of Adelaide. figshare.

Dataset Repository (Max Planck Institute for Animal Behavior 2019) Max Planck Institute for Animal Behavior. 2019. Movebank Data Repository: For Animal Tracking Data. Konstanz, Germany: The Institute.
Dataset Deposit Record (Morgan and Godwin 2017) Morgan, J. A. T., and R. M. Godwin. 2017. Data from: Mitochondrial Genomes of Australian Chicken Eimeria Support the Presence of Ten Species With Low Genetic Diversity Among Strains. Dryad Data Repository. Referenced in
Dataset Description Article (Yadav et al. 2014) Yadav, Brijesh S., Mayank Pokhriyal, Dinesh P. Vasishtha, and Bhaskar Sharma. 2014. "Animal Viruses Probe Dataset (AVPDS) for Microarray-Based Diagnosis and Identification of Viruses." Current Microbiology 68, no. 3 (March): 301-304.

Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Image, Photograph or Artwork from a Book (Leibovitz 1996, 72) Leibovitz, Annie. 1996. Olympic Portraits. Boston: Little Brown.
Reproduction in a Book (Bedford 2001, 154) Bedford, Paddy. 2001. Dingo Dreaming. ochre on canvas. Reproduced in McCulloch, Susan, and Emily McCulloch Childs. 2008. McCulloch's Contemporary Aboriginal Art: The Complete Guide, 154. Fitzroy, Vic: McCulloch & McCulloch Australian Art Books.
Image from a Book Chapter (Ardagna et al. 2008, fig. 1) Ardagna, Claudio Agostino, Ernesto Damiani, Fulvio Frati, and Mauro Madravio. 2007. "Open-Source Solution to Secure E-Government Services." In Encyclopedia of Digital Government, edited by Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko and Matti Malkia, 1300-1305. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Reference. IGI Global e-book.
Image from a Journal Article (Yeh and Xu 2010, table 1) Yeh, Quey-Jen, and Xiaojun Xu. 2010. "The Effect of Confucian Work Ethics on Learning About Science and Technology Knowledge and Morality." Journal of Business Ethics 95, no. 1 (August): 111-128.
Image from a Newspaper (Leunig 1995, 24) Leunig, Michael. 1995. "Thoughts of a Baby Lying in a Child Care Centre." The Sydney Morning Herald, July 27, 1995: 24.
Image from a Database (Kessel 1995, 10:10) Kessel, Marion. 1995. The Making of a Monologue: Robert Wilson's Hamlet. New York: Cinema Guild. Video recording, 62:18 mins. Theatre in Video.
Online Image/Artwork (Nolan 1946) Nolan, Sydney. 1946. The Encounter. enamel paint on composition board. Canberra: National Gallery of Australia.
Online Map (Google Maps 2015) Google Maps. 2015. "The British Library, London, UK."  Google. Accessed February 5, 2015.,-0.127676,17z
Original Image/Artwork (Viewed in a Gallery or Collection) (Angus 2006) Angus, James. 2006. Gorilla, Gorilla, Gorilla. wood veneers, nylon. Perth: Art Gallery of Western Australia.

Internet Content
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Analytics report (Google Analytics 2017) Google Analytics. 2017. Analytics 3.1: Water Corporation Domain Only (Excluding Internal Traffic and Bots%2FSpiders) Overview 20160701-20170630. http://Analytics 3.1 Water Corporation Domain Only (Excluding Internal Traffic and Bots%2FSpiders) Overview 20160701-20170630.pdf.
App / Software

(StudentVIP 2017)

StudentVIP. 2017. Lost on Campus.

Blog Post

(Tudor 2015)

Tudor, Ken. 2015. "Protecting Pets in Abusive Human Relationships." The Daily Vet (blog), June 9, 2015.

Document (Shiell 2006) Shiell, Kevin. 2006. Animal Welfare Inventory Report to AAWS - Livestock Production Working Group.
Document: no author

(Every Victorian has a NURSE-ON-CALL 2021)

Every Victorian has a NURSE-ON-CALL. 2021. Victoria: Department of Health, State of Victoria.
Facebook Page

(National Library of Australia 2017)

National Library of Australia. 2017. "National Library of Australia's Facebook Page." Facebook, August 28, 2017.
Facebook Post

(Murdoch University Library 2017)

Murdoch University Library. 2017. "Poet Speak." Facebook, October 26, 2017.

Game (Persson and Bergensten 2011) Persson, Markus, and Jens Bergensten. 2011. Minecraft, October, 2011. Mojang Synergies AB.
Instagram Post (Murdoch University Library 2017) Murdoch University Library. 2017. "24/7 Refurbishment." Instagram photo, November 29, 2017.

(Robertson 2010)

Robertson, Rachael. 2010. Leadership at the Bottom of the Earth…Where No One Hears You Scream. 2010 Sir Walter Murdoch Lecture. Lecture given at Murdoch University in October 2010, 55 min.

Podcast Lecture from LMS

(Hill 2012)

Hill, David. 2012. Australian Media Representation of Asia. podcast lecture. In Australia in Asia (FDN110). Lecture recorded at Murdoch University on April 4, 2012, 45 min.

Podcast Radio Programme

(Gary 2007)

Gary, Stuart. 2007. "Black Hole Death Ray." StarStuff. Aired on ABC News Radio, December 23, 2007, 40:44 min.

Podcast Television Programme (Brown, Brodie, and George 2007) Brown, Warren, Keith Brodie, and Peter George. 2007. "From Lake Baikal to the Halfway Mark, Yekaterinburg," Episode 3. Peking to Paris. Aired on June 4, 2007 on ABC Television, 59 min.
TikTok video (@SookieandIvy 2020) (@SookieandIvy).  2020.  “Do Your Dogs Like Any of These Snacks? #nomnomnom #tastetesting #WildAnimals #fyp #foryoupage #staffysoftiktok.” TikTok, December 4, 2020.
Webpage (World Wildlife Fund 2010) World Wildlife Fund. 2010. WWF Worldwide.
X Post / Tweet

(Kruszelnicki 2017)

Kruszelnicki, Karl (@DoctorKarl). 2017. "Dr Karl Twitter post." Twitter, February 19, 2017, 9:34 a.m.
YouTube/Vimeo/Ted Talk video (Setrakian 2017) Setrakian, Lara. 2017. "3 Ways to Fix a Broken News Industry." Uploaded in January, 2017. Ted Talks TEDNYC video, 8:37 min. broken_news_industry#t-521404.

Journal Articles
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry

Journal Article:
 from a Full Text Database
 author full first name provided
 with a DOI

(Döring et al. 2009) Döring, Dorothea, Anita Roscher, Fabian Scheipl, Helmut Küchenhoff, and Michael H. Erhard. 2009. "Fear-related Behaviour of Dogs in Veterinary Practice." The Veterinary Journal 182, no. 1 (October): 38-43.

Journal Article 
 from a Full Text Database
 author first name initials only provided
 no DOI 

(Oskouizadeh, Zahraei-Salehi, and Aledavood 2010) Oskouizadeh, K., T. Zahraei-Salehi, and S. J. Aledavood. 2010. "Detection of Bartonella henselae in Domestic Cats' Saliva." Iranian Journal of Microbiology 2, no. 2 (June): 80-84. CAB Abstracts Full Text Select.

Journal Article
 from the Internet
 author first name initials only provided
 with a DOI

(Meng et al. 2002) Meng, X. J., B. Wiseman, F. Elvinger, D. K. Guenette, T. E. Toth, R. E. Engle, S. U. Emerson, and R. H. Purcell. 2002. "Prevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis E Virus in Veterinarians Working with Swine and in Normal Blood Donors in the United States and Other Countries." Journal of Clinical Microbiology 40, no. 1 (January): 117-122.

Journal Article
 from the Internet
 author first name initials only provided
 no DOI 
 no month or season available

(Bisias et al. 2010) Bisias, G., A. Burriel, S. Boutsini, S. Kritas, and L. Leontides. 2010. "A Serological Investigation Of Some Abortion Causes Among Small Ruminant Flocks In Greece." The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine 8 (2): 27+.

Journal Article
 in print
 author first name initials only provided

(Zhang et al. 2006)

Zhang, B., J. Cohen, R. Ferrence and J. Rehm. 2006. "The Impact of Tobacco Tax Cuts on Smoking Initiation Among Canadian Young Adults." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30, no. 6 (June): 474-479

Journal Article
 in print
 author first name initials only provided
• including page numbers

(Hanna 2007, 2047)

Hanna, K. 2007. "Adsorption of Aromatic Carboxylate Compounds on the Surface of Synthesized Iron Oxide-coated Sands." Applied Geochemistry 22, no. 9 (September): 2045-2053.

Journal Article
 in print
 no author

(Who Will Regulate the Veterinary Profession of the Future 2004)

"Who Will Regulate the Veterinary Profession of the Future?" 2004. Veterinary Record 154, no. 15 (April): 450-451.

Legal Materials
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Reported Case

(Coleman v Richards 1941, 22)

Coleman v Richards. 1941. 43 WALR 21.

Unreported Case

(KJS v The Queen 2016, 30)

KJS v The Queen. [2016]. WASC 14. January 13, 30.


(Dog Act 1976, (WA), sec. 13)

Dog Act 1976 (WA). August 27, 2022.


(Australia. House of Representatives. 2016, 2364)

Australia. House of Representatives. 2016. Parliamentary Debates. February 29, 2361. Clare O’Neil.

News Articles
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Newspaper Article in Print

(Hatch 2006)

Hatch, B. 2006. "Smoke Lingers for Those who Keep Hospitality Flowing." Australian Financial Review, July 13, 2006: 14.

News Article from the Internet

(Devlin 2010)

Devlin, H. 2010. "Neuron Breakthrough Offers Hope on Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s." The Times, January 28, 2010.

News Article from a Full Text Database

(O’Leary 2006)

O'Leary, C. 2006. "Landmark Study to Aid Push for Public Smoking Ban." The West Australian, June 29, 2006: 14. Factiva.

Readers/Study Guides
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry

(Jafari 1990)

Jafari, J. 1990. "Research and Scholarship: The Basis of Tourism Education." The Journal of Tourism Studies 1, no. 1 (May): 33-43. Reprinted in Tourism Course Reader (TOU 000) 2009: A source book of seminar texts. Murdoch, WA: Murdoch University.

Reports: Government Agencies and Other Organisations
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry

(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2000)

Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2000. Livestock Products, Australia, March Quarter (cat. no. 7215.0). AusStats,


(Australia. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry 2007)

Australia. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. 2007. Biosecurity: Protect Your Animals and Produce from Pests and Disease.

Individual Authors


(Goodrum, Hackling, and Rennie 2001)

Goodrum, Denis, Mark Hackling, and Leonie Rennie. 2001. The Status and Quality of Teaching and Learning of Science in Australian Schools. DETYA No. 6623DRED00A. Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, Canberra, ACT.


(CSIRO 2016)

CSIRO. 2016. Australia 2030: Navigating our Uncertain Future. Canberra, ACT: CSIRO.

as Part of Series

(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2015)

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare). 2015. Emergency Department Care 2014-15: Australian Hospital Statistics. Cat. No. HSE 168. Canberra, ACT: AIHW. 1.pdf.aspx?inline=true

Secondary Sources
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Secondary Source: Cited

Seidenberg and McClelland’s 1989 study, published in the  volume 96 of the Psychological Review, (cited in Reid 2007) found that the paranormal...

Reid, A. S. 2007. "Study of Multiple Paranormal Phenomena." Journal of Abnormal Psychology 45, no. 1 (February): 13-26.
Secondary Source: Quoted

In Louis Zukofskyin's "Sincerity and Objectification," from the February 1931 issue of Poetry magazine (quoted in Costello 1981, 62)...

Costello, Bonnie. 1981. Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Unpublished Thesis

(Naresh 2010)

Naresh, Ram. 2010. "In vitro Studies of Brachyspira pilosicoli Pathogenesis." PhD thesis, Murdoch University.
Published Thesis

(Yen 2009)

Yen, Hung-Hsun. 2009. Modulation of Immune Responses to DNA Vaccines in Sheep: May a Particular Type of Immune Memory Induced during Vaccination Still be Maintained During Infection? Saarbrücken, Germany: LAP Lambert Academic.
Thesis from a Full Text Database

(Beller 2014)

Beller, Benjamin J. 2014. "Fire History of the Peron Peninsula, Shark Bay, Western Australia Based on Remote Sensing Dendrochronology, and Anecdotal Evidence." M.S. thesis, University of Nebraska at Omaha, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global (1564281),