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Chicago - Referencing Guide

A-V Materials


Standard format for citation

Performer or Presenter, A. Year. Title: Subtitle. Special credits. Place of Production: Production Company. Format, Duration.


Standard format for recording citation

Performer or Presenter, A. Year. "Title of Episode," Season #, episode # (if applicable). Title of Programme.Special credits. Aired or Recorded on Month Day, Year, on Network (if appropriate), duration.


Standard format for YouTube/Vimeo video citation

Author, A. A. OR Screen name. Year. "Title of Video." Uploaded on Month, Day, Year. YouTube OR Vimeo video, Duration. Internet address of specific video.


Note: A performer or presenter is only given principal credit if they are the focus of the recording.


Author full first name provided

Moore, Michael. 2003. Bowling for Columbine. Written and directed by Michael Moore. Melbourne: AV Channel. DVD, 120 min.

Radio programme

Author full first name provided

Browning, Daniel. 2006. "Black Soccer Heroes." Message Stick. Guest speaker Dr. John Maynard. Aired on June 9, 2006 on ABC Radio, 4:25 min.

Sound recordings

Author first names' initials only provided

Bolton, G. C. 1975. "Towards an Australian Environmental History" (speech). Perth, WA: Media Services, Murdoch University. Cassette recording, 50 min.

Organisation as an author

St. Laurance Chamber Choir. 2005. Commemoration, Ritual and Performance: The Iberian Connection: Medieval and Renaissance Music from the St Laurence Chamber Choir.  Directed by N. McEwan. Sydney, NSW: Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney. Compact disc, 45: 24 min.

Television programme

Author full first name provided

Masters, Chris. 2006. "Big Fish, Little Fish." Four Corners. Aired on March 27, 2006 on ABC Television, 45 min.

Video recording

Author full first name provided

Attenborough, David. 1990. Life on Earth: A Natural History. Produced by Richard Brock and John Sparks. US: Warner Home Video. Videorecording (VHS), 2 videocassettes, 233 min. each.


Author first names' initials only provided

Bunny, F. 1995. Biology and ecology of Phytophthora citricola. In Native Plant Communities Affected By Mining.  East Perth, WA: MERIWAmicrofiche.

YouTube/Vimeo video

Organisation as an author

NRK. 2007. "Medieval Helpdesk with English Subtitles." Uploaded on February 26, 2007. YouTube video, 2:44 min.

See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, a-v material, books and web pages.