• The short citations within the text are given wholly or partly in round brackets.
• Use only the surname of the author followed by the year of publication:
• Include page, chapter or section numbers if you need to be specific:
Matthews discusses the role of drawings in the psychological evaluation of children (1999, 34-35). OR
... in the psychological evaluation of children has been studied elsewhere (Matthews 1999, 34-35).
Two or three authors
• Cite all authors every time you cite within the text.
• Separate the the authors name in the citation with and:
(Simmons and Green 1997, 62) … OR
Simmons and Green (1997, 62) were unable …
(Lester, Brown, and Withers 1987, 26) OR
Lester, Brown and Withers (1987, 26) agreed ....
• When citing a work by Forman, Jones, Witham and Gonzales. Only the surname of the first listed author is used, followed either by "and others" or more commonly in science "et al.":
Forman and others (1987, 62-63) have found … OR
(Forman et al. 1987, 62-63)
• Although "et al." is a Latin phrase, in Chicago style it is not italicised.
• Please note that all authors' names are listed in the Reference List.
Volume numbers included
• For multivolume publications include the date, then a comma, followed by the volume number, then a colon and the page number(s):
This theory is dealt with in detail by Johnson (2003, 2: 23, 3: 17-36).
Authors with the same surname
• Make a distinction between them by including the authors' initials.
• Place the initials before the family name:
The theory was propounded in 1990 (A.E. Larsen 1991) … OR
M.K. Larsen (2003) is among those …
Multiple works by the same author in the same year
• A distinction is made by adding lower case letters, a, b, c, etc. to the date.
• These letters are also included in the full reference in the reference list to distinguish between the two documents:
Bursch (2005a, 14) described how the yak made transport possible in the high mountains of Inner Asia, as did the llama in the Andes of South America (Bursch 2005b, 231).
• These are works without a personal author.
• Corporate authors may be associations, agencies like government departments, corporations or organisations.
• Names of organisations should be given in full the first time they are cited within the text.
• In subsequent citations, these names may be abbreviated in the text if the abbreviation is meaningful or well known:
(CSIRO 1999) ...
As predicted by the Centre of Independent Studies (1997) ...
More than one work cited
• List all sources of information either in the text or within the citation separated by a semicolon (;):
(Larsen 1991; Haddon 1999) ...
Larsen (1991) and Haddon (1999) demonstrated that ...
(Larsen 1991, 11; Haddon 1999, 3: 734)
• When a work has no author or the author is anonymous, cite the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year.
• Use italics for the title:
This was apparently not the case in seventeenth-century England (On Travelling to London, 1683) ...
On Travelling to London (1683) reveals that this was not true.
No date of publication
• Use the abbreviation n.d. to indicate that no date of publication is given:
Carruthers (n.d.) has suggested ... OR
• If the author of the article is named, cite in the normal way with the author and date.
• If there is no author given, cite the newspaper title in italics.
• Include the specific date as well as year and page or section numbers if appropriate:
(Canberra Times 24 Jan. 1997, B6) ...
The Weekend Australian (24-25 Jan. 1997, 19) reported ...