• Personal communications include conversations, interviews, lecture material, telephone conversations, letters and e-mail messages.
• Citations for this type of material are unpublished and are not included in the reference list because they do not contain recoverable data. Cite personal communications in the text only.
• They are not given formal parenthetical references in the text of an essay or assignment, instead references to this form of material are usually run into the text.
• Give the title, given name or initials as well as the surname of the communicator and provide as exact a date as possible:
In a telephone conversation with the author on October 12, 2005, Dr J. W. Mueller stated that ...
Professor Visser gave his reasons for closing the laboratory in an e-mail message to the author on January 16, 2004. The reasons given were...