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IEEE - Referencing Guide

Journal Articles


  Only the author's initials are given, regardless of the presentation of the author's name on the journal article.

  Capitalisation practice should also be consistent.

  Capitalise only the first word of an article title, except for proper nouns or acronyms. Every (important) word in the title of a journal must be capitalised.

  You must either spell out the entire name of each journal that you reference or use accepted abbreviations. You must consistently do one or the other. Staff at the Ask a Librarian Desk can suggest sources of accepted journal abbreviations.

  Do not capitalise the "v" in volume for a journal article.

  You may spell out words such as volume or December, but you must either spell out all such occurrences or abbreviate all. You do not need to abbreviate March, April, May, June or July.

  To indicate a page range use 123-9, 126-34 or 111-222. If you refer to only one page, use only 111.

  Include the name of the full text Database used to source the article (e.g. Academic OneFile, ProQuest, and IEEE Xplore).

  Include the internet address.

When including the internet address of articles retrieved from searches in full-text databases, use the Recommended URLs for Full-text Databases, which are the URLs for the main entrance to the service and are easier to reproduce.

  Include the DOI of the article, if given.

  Include the complete Internet address and date accessed for articles sourced from the Internet.


Standard format for citation

Online article:

[#] A. Author, "Title of Article," Title of Journal, vol., no., p. page numbers, month year. [Format]. Available: Database Name (if appropriate), internet address. [Accessed: date of access].

Print article:

[#] A. A. Author of article. "Title of article," Title of Journal, vol. #, no. #, pp. page number/s, Month year.


Journal article from a full text database 

[1] H. K. Edwards and V. Sridhar, "Analysis of software requirements engineering exercises in a global virtual team setup," Journal of Global Information Management, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 21+, April-June 2005. [Online]. Available: Academic OneFile, [Accessed May 31, 2005].

[2] A. Holub, "Is software engineering an oxymoron?" Software Development Times, p. 28+, March 2005. [Online]. Available: ProQuest, [Accessed May 23, 2005].

[3] H. Ayasso and A. Mohammad-Djafari, "Joint NDT image restoration and segmentation using Gauss–Markov–Potts prior models and variational Bayesian computation," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 2265-77, 2010. [Online]. Available: IEEE Xplore, [Accessed Sept. 10, 2010].

Journal article from the internet

[4] A. Altun, "Understanding hypertext in the context of reading on the web: Language learners' experience," Current Issues in Education, vol. 6, no. 12, July 2003. [Online]. Available: [Accessed Dec. 2, 2004].

[5] P. H. C. Eilers and J. J. Goeman, "Enhancing scatterplots with smoothed densities," Bioinformatics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 623-628, March 2004. [Online]. Available: [Accessed Sept. 18, 2004].

Journal articles in print

[6] E. P. Wigner, "Theory of traveling wave optical laser," Phys. Rev., vol. 134, pp. A635-A646, Dec. 1965.

[7] J. U. Duncombe, "Infrared navigation - Part I: An assessment of feasability," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices, vol. ED-11, pp. 34-39, Jan. 1959.

[8] G. Liu, K. Y. Lee, and H. F. Jordan, "TDM and TWDM de Bruijn networks and shufflenets for optical communications," IEEE Trans. Comp., vol. 46, pp. 695-701, June 1997.


[9] J. R. Beveridge and E. M. Riseman, "How easy is matching 2D line models using local search?" IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, pp. 564-579, June 1997.

[10] I. S. Qamber, "Flow graph development method," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1387-1395, Dec. 1993.

[11] E. H. Miller, "A note on reflector arrays," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, to be published.

See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, books, and web pages.