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IEEE - Referencing Guide



  See Book Chapters guidance page to reference book chapters, as this page has guidance for referencing whole books.

  Only the author's initials are included regardless of the presentation of the author's name in the source document.

 The names of all authors should be given in the references unless the number of authors is greater than six.

  If there are more than six authors, you may use et al. after the name of the first author.

  Capitalisation practice should be consistent.

  Every (important) word in the title of a work must be capitalised.

  Only the first word of a subtitle should be capitalised.

  Capitalise the "v" in Volume for a book title.

  Information about places of publication should follow the guidelines for place names.

  Include the name of the full text Database used to source the article (e.g. Academic OneFile, ProQuest, and IEEE Xplore).

When including the internet address of articles retrieved from searches in full-text databases, use the Recommended URLs for Full-text Databases, which are the URLs for the main entrance to the service and are easier to reproduce.

  Include the DOI of the e-book, if given.

  Include the complete Internet address for e-books sourced from the Internet.


Standard format for citation

Authored e-book:

[#] A. Author, Title of E-book. Place: Publisher, Date of original publication. [Format] Available: Source.


Authored print book:

[#] A. A. Author, Title: Subtitle (in italics), Edition(if not the first), Vol.(if a multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher, Year, page number(s) (if appropriate).


Edited work:

[#] A. A. Editor, Title: Subtitle (in italics), Edition(if not the first), Vol.(if a multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher, Year, page number(s) (if appropriate).


Single author or editor e-book

[1] T. Eckes, The Developmental Social Psychology of Gender. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2000. [Online] Available: netLibrary e-book.

Single author or editor print book

[2] W.-K. Chen, Linear Networks and Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123-135.

[3] S. M. Hemmington, Soft Science. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Press, 1997.

[4] D. Sarunyagate, Ed., Lasers. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Two or three authors or editors e-book

[5] L. Bass, P. Clements, and R. Kazman, Software Architecture in Practice, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 2003. [Online] Available: Safari e-book.

Two or three authors or editors print book

[6] T. Jordan and P. A. Taylor, Hacktivism and Cyberwars: Rebels with a cause? London: Routledge, 2004.

[7] U. J. Gelinas, Jr., S. G. Sutton, and J. Fedorowicz, Business Processes and Information Technology. Cincinnati: South-Western/Thomson Learning, 2004.

More than three authors

[8] R. Hayes, G. Pisano, D. Upton, and S. Wheelwright, Operations, Strategy, and Technology: Pursuing the competitive edge. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.

Later edition

[9] K. Schwalbe, Information Technology Project Management, 3rd ed. Boston: Course Technology, 2004.

[10] M. N. DeMers, Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems, 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley, 2005.

No author

[11] The Oxford Dictionary of Computing, 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Multivolume work

[12] J. Voogt and G. Knezek, Eds., International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education, 9th ed., 2 Vols. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1993.


[13] M. Bell, et al., Universities Online: A survey of online education and services in Australia, Occasional Paper Series 02-A. Canberra: Department of Education, Science and Training, 2002.


[14] World Bank, Information and Communication Technologies: A World Bank group strategy. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2002.

Government publications

[15] Australian Government Information Management Office, Meeting the Demand for ICT Skills in the Australian Public Service: Report of the ICT Professional and Skills Development Taskforce. Canberra: AGIMO, 2007.

[16] Australia. Attorney-Generals Department., Digital Agenda Review, 4 Vols. Canberra: Attorney- General's Department, 2003.

Please Note: Documents authored by government departments are cited following the jurisdiction they report to. Precede the department name with Australia., Western Australia., etc.  

Scientific / Technical report

[17] K. E. Elliott and C.M. Greene, "A local adaptive protocol," Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, France, Tech. Rep. 916-1010-BB, 1997.

Patent / Standard

[18] K. Kimura and A. Lipeles, "Fuzzy controller component," U. S. Patent 14,860,040, December 14, 1996.


[19] "Catalog No. MWM-1, Microwave components," M. W. Microwave Corp., Brooklyn, NY.

Application notes

[20] Hewlett-Packard, "Appl. note 935," pp. 25-29.

See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, books, and web pages.