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Legal Research Guide: Source Tertiary and Secondary Materials

Source Tertiary and Secondary Materials

Legal encyclopaedia include a topic outline, relevant legislation, significant case law, and journal articles.

Legal encyclopaedia and dictionaries are the first step in understanding an issue, or if there is not definition in an Act, Interpretation Acts, or in case law.

Legal encyclopaedia can be browsed or searched using Advanced Search (recommended).

 

Australian Encyclopaedia

 

International Encyclopaedia

Spelling and Grammar

AGLC Rule 1.9.1  Official Dictionary

Spelling should comply with the latest edition of the Macquarie Dictionary.

Where alternative spellings are given, the first-listed should be used unless there is a good reason to do otherwise.

Where a word is not included in the Macquarie Dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary should be used.

This will generally mean that British English spelling is preferred to American variants.

Source Journal Articles

Library Search cannot search for articles from the law databases by article title.

Search Library Search for the journal title
Be sure to change the search from the default Keyword to Title.

Once you are in the correct database for that journal, you can then search for the article by title.

Sourcing Articles by Article Title:

  • Step 1: Search for the full title of the journal using Library Search
  • Step 2: Source the journal on the correct database (eg HeinOnline, Informit, Lexis+, Westlaw Australia)
  • Step 3: Search for the article by title, using the Journals content type or Advanced Search in a database

Sourcing Journal Articles on a Topic

Each legal database only gives search results from the journals they publish.

Therefore, searches will need to be repeated in each legal database to ensure comprehensive coverage of a topic.

To source articles on a topic:

  • identify search words
  • list synonyms
  • create search strings using Boolean connectors
         record these so search strings do not need to be re-created for each search
  • repeat searches in each legal database

Australian Articles

Source articles from:

International Articles

Source articles from:

Tables of Contents from Journals

Establish alerts for Tables of Content for latest editions (free)

Journal abbreviations

There are a number of online resources that can be useful in providing the full title of journal abbreviations. 

Library Search cannot search for articles from the law databases by citation.

Source Articles by Citation:

  • Step 1: Expand the abbreviation of the journal title using Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations
  • Step 2: Search for the journal using Library Search
  • Step 3: Source the journal in the correct database (eg HeinOnline, Informit, Lexis+, Westlaw Australia) or Library shelves (eg Law Quarterly Review)
  • Step 4: Browse by volume, then page number to source the article or Search within the journal

 

Example: 44 Crim LJ 173

Step 1:  Solve the journal title abbreviation

Access Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations
Enter abbreviation
              Example:  Crim LJ

Select Search

Read the list of titles.
If unsure, check the Jurisdiction for clarification

Copy the full title of the publication

Step 2: Search for the full name of the journal using Library Search

Step 3: Select the link to Source the journal online on the correct database

Step 4:  Search by citation or browse the database for the article

 

Library Search cannot search for articles from the law databases by article title.

Use Library Search to search for the journal title.

Once you are in the correct database for that journal, you can then search for the article by title.

Sourcing Articles by Article Title:

  • Step 1: Expand the abbreviation of the journal title using Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations
  • Step 2: Search for the journal using Library Search
  • Step 3: Source the journal on the correct database (eg HeinOnline, Informit, Lexis+, Westlaw Australia)
  • Step 4: Search for the article by title, using the Journals content type or Advanced Search in a database

 

Example 1:

"No Unbundling for Ethical Obligations" (2003) 41(6) LSJ 58

Example 2:

"No Unbundling for Ethical Obligations" (2003) 41(6) LSJ 58

 

Example 3:

"James Hardie’s asbestos liability legacy in Australia: Disclosure, corporate social responsibility and the power of persuasion"  (2011) 26 Aust Jnl of Corp Law 55

Step 1.

Type article title into Library Search.

Tip:
enclose title in double inverted commas.

Example: "No Unbundling for Ethical Obligations"

 

Step 1:

Solve the journal abbreviation using Cardiff

Step 1:

Solve the journal abbreviation using Cardiff

 

Step 2:

Identify the relevant Result.

Click on the link Full Text Online

Step 2:

Type journal title into Library Search.

Tip:
enclose title in double inverted commas.

Step 2:

Type journal title into Library Search.

Tip:
enclose title in double inverted commas.

 

Step 3:

Select the relevant title

Step 3:

Identify the relevant Result.

Click on the link Full Text Online

Step 3:

Identify the relevant Result.

Click on the link Full Text Online

 

 

Step 4:

Select the Download button

Step 4:

Select the link to the database holding the relevant date period

Step 4:

Select the link to the database holding the journal

 

 

Step 5:

Select the year from the Table of Contents

Step 5:

Search the journal by article title

Tip:
enclose title in double inverted commas.

 

 

Step 6:

Navigate to the relevant article

Step 6:

Select the relevant result

 

 

Step 7:

Click on the download button to view article as a PDF

 

Cannot find what you want?

If Murdoch Library does not have the article you are seeking, you can:

Articles sourced from HeinOnline, Lexis+, Scopus and Westlaw Australia are all peer reviewed.

Search for journal titles in UlrichsWeb to confirm that a journal's publishing policy is to have articles reviewed prior to publishing.

Library Search does not search CCH, Lexis+, or Westlaw Australia.

Library Search

Databases

Google Scholar

Step 1:

Search by topic or title using Library Search

 

Gale Academic OneFile

Check the box to filter results to Peer review articles only

Step 1:

Search by topic or title using Google Scholar

 

Step 2:

Refine search results by Content Type:

Journal Article

located to the left of screen

 

 

_________________________

 

Step 2:

Search for journal title in UlrichsWeb

Note: not the article title

Step 3:

Refine search results by

Scholarly & Peer-Reviewed

 

ProQuest

Check the box to filter results to Peer review articles only

Step 3:

Confirm that journal has black icon of books
indicating it is refereed

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Ulrich's Record

The black book symbol indicates that the journal has a peer review publishing policy.

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General search instructions

In each database:

  • select Journals Advanced Search
  • search by Act title or number
  • select Journals referring to this Act

AustLII

Informit including AGIS Plus Text

Lexis+ 

Westlaw Australia 

Option 1: LawCite:

Step 1:

Select LawCite
located at the end of the red stripe

Step 1:

Search by Act title in double inverted commas and jurisdiction

e.g. 
"Legal Profession Uniform Law Application Act" AND (Western OR WA)

 

Tip:
check the box for  Full text only
only add the provision number - not s, p, etc

Step 1:

From the Advanced Search menu, select Secondary Materials

 

Step 1:

Search by Act title in double inverted commas and section number to be within 10 words of Act title

e.g. 
"Legal Profession Uniform Law Application Act" /10 141

Step 2:

Add the Act title in Legislation Considered:

Add the provision number in Section

Tips:
omit the Act year
only add the provision number - not s, p, etc

Step 2:

Select Search

Step 2:

Navigate to Legislation Title and Provision Number

 

Step 2:

Select Search

Step 3:

Select Search

 

Step 3:

Add the term

Tip:
select Act title from suggestions
only add the provision number - not s, p, etc

Step 3:

From the Results page:

Option 1: Select View All Secondary Sources

Option 2: Select Secondary Sources from the Content types menu

Step 4:

Select
Law Journal Articles matching this search 
located at end of menu below LawCite logo

 

Step 4:

Select Search

Step 4:

From the Filter menu on the left of screen,
from the By Type filterselect Law Reviews & Journals

 

Option 2: Database Search

1. Select Journals & Scholarship from the red ribbon

 

Step 5:

Narrow results by using filters
located to the left of screen

Step 5:

Either add search terms to top search text box, or use the options in the Filter menu on the left of screen

2. Add the Act title within double inverted commas to the search box (located in the top right corner)

e.g. 
"Legal Profession Act 2008" 

     
3. Click on the magnifying icon to Search      
4. Results can be sorted:
     By Relevance
     By Citation Frequency
     By Database
     By Date
     By Title
     

 

General search instructions

In each database:

  • select Journals Advanced Search
  • search by case name or citation 
  • select Journals referring to this case

 

AustLII

Informit
including AGIS Plus Text
  

Lexis+  

Westlaw Australia  

Option 1: LawCite:

1. Select LawCite (located at the far right on the red band)

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Step 1:

Search by Case title in double inverted commas and jurisdiction

e.g. 
"Callow v Rupchev"

 

Tip:
check the box for  Full text only

Step 1: From Advanced Search select AU Cases

Complete citation OR 
Case Name field. For example, [2009] NSWCA 148.

Click Search.

 

1. Search by case citation or case name

Example:
2009 NSWCA 148
            or
"Callow v Rupchev"

 

 

 

 

 

2. Complete Case citation OR 
case Party Names fields 

Step 2:

Select Search

Step 2: Click on result and select CaseBase link

 

2. Select the relevant suggestion from the drop-down menu

3. Navigate to
Law Journal Articles Referring to this Case

 

Step 3: Navigate to Publications referring to this case

 

_________________________

3. From  the Citing References tab,
select
Secondary Sources
from the drop-down menu

 

 

 

Option 2: Database Search:

1. Select Journals & Scholarship from the red ribbon

 
 

 

4.  Filter results by Publication Name to select journals

 

2. Add the citation within double inverted commas to the search box (located in the top right corner)

Example:
"2009 NSWCA 148"

 

 

 
3. Click on the magnifying icon to Search      

4. Results can be sorted:
     By Relevance
     By Citation Frequency
     By Database
     By Date
     By Title

     

 

General search instructions

In each database:

  • select Journals Advanced Search
  • search by the article's title or citation

Example: Articles citing the article  Gray, Kevin, 'Property in Thin Air' (1991) 50 Cambridge Law Journal 252

AustLII

Informit
including AGIS Plus Text
 

Lexis+ 

Westlaw Australia 

Option 1: LawCite:

1. Select LawCite (located at the far right on the red band)

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1:

Search by Case title in double inverted commas and jurisdiction

Example:
"Property in Thin Air"

 

Tip:
check the box for  Full text only

Step 1: From Advanced Search, select Secondary Materials

1. Select Content Type -  Secondary Sources

2. Select Advanced Search 

 

2. Complete Article citation OR 
Article Title OR Author fields 

 

2. Select Search

Step 2: Enter search term and click Search.

Note: this search only searches the title of the material

 

2. Complete relevant field:
      Title
      Citation
      Author
      Text
      

3. Navigate to
Law Journal Articles Referring to this Article

 

Results can be Narrowed By:
     Content Type
     Publication
     Legal Topics

3. Filter Results by Publication Type - Law Reviews & Journals

 

_________________________

Option 2: Database Search:

1. Select Journals & Scholarship from the red ribbon

 

 

 

 

 

2. Add the citation OR article title OR author within double inverted commas to the search box (located in the top right corner)

Example:
"Property in Thin Air"

 

 

 
3. Click on the magnifying icon to Search      

4. Results can be sorted:
     By Relevance
     By Citation Frequency
     By Database [recommended]
     By Date
     By Title

     

 

Example: Articles citing the article  Gray, Kevin, 'Property in Thin Air' (1991) 50 Cambridge Law Journal 252

CCH iKnowConnect 

Google Scholar

Library Search

Westlaw Classic.

1: Search by article title in double inverted commas

Example:
"Property in Thin Air"

 

1:  Change Google Scholar Settings:

Library links: Murdoch

 

 

Library Search includes results from:

Gale OneFile: LegalTrac
HeinOnline
Informit
Kluwer Law
ProQuest

1. Select Content -  International Materials

 

2. Select the magnifying icon to Search

 

2: Search by article title in double inverted commas

Example:
"Property in Thin Air"

1: Search by article title in double inverted commas

Example:
"Property in Thin Air"


      

2. Select

Content Types

 Journals

3. From the menu on the left of screen, from

CONTENT TYPE

Select Commentary

 

3. Select Search

2. Select Search

 

3. Search by article title in double inverted commas in the search box at the top of screen

Example:
"Property in Thin Air"

 

4. Uncheck the boxes for

   □  include patents
   □  include citations

2. Refine Results to

CONTENT TYPE
Journal Article

DISCIPLINE
Law

 

 

 

 

Case law and journal citations are made up of the abbreviation for the case report series or journal.
To find the unabbreviated case report series or journal title you can look at a number of different sources:

Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations

All that JAS:   Journal Abbreviation Sources

CaseBase - access CaseBase Abbreviations (by Publication) from the help menu

La Trobe University Legal Abbreviations Database

LCANZ - Legal Citations of Aotearoa New Zealand

Legal commentaries and updating services provide guidance in applying the law on a particular subject area.

Written by subject specialists, practitioners and academics, commentary services provide an explanation of laws using a mix of commentary, legislation (full text or extracts) and key cases.

Many commentary services include in-depth, practical insights, together with extensive illustrative material, enabling an appreciation of both the technical and procedural aspects of the law.

LexisNexis Practical Guidance resources contain precedents for use in:

  • Sales practices
  • Regulatory framework
  • Contracting
  • Consumer credit
  • Advertising, promotions and marketing
  • Misleading and deceptive conduct
  • E-Commerce
  • Warranties and consumer guarantees

 

AustLII

CCH iKnowConnect 

Lexis+ 

Westlaw Australia 

1. Select LawCite (located at the far right on the red band)

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1. Add the legislation title and section number to the search box

Tip: Enclose the legislation title in double inverted commas

"Commercial Tenancy (Retail Shops) Agreements Act 1985"

 

 

 

Step 1. In Advanced Search select Secondary Materials

 

 

 

1.  Search by Act title in double inverted commas and section number to be within 10 words of Act title

e.g. "Commercial Tenancy (Retail Shops) Agreements Act 1985"

 

2. Complete Legislation Title and Provision Number fields

Tip: Do not include a designation abbreviation - just the number)

2. Narrow Results

by CONTENT TYPE

▢ Commentary

 

 

Step 2. Complete (i) References to Legislation by Title and (ii) References to Legislation by Provision Number fields

For example, in References to Legislation by Title, enter Commercial Tenancy (Retail Shops) Agreements Act 1985. In References to Legislation by Provision Number, enter 16.

Tip: Do not include a designation abbreviation - just the number

 

2. Navigate the Contents page to
section 16 Party to lease may refer question to SAT

 

 

 

 

3. Narrow the search results to Commentary

 

3. Expand the Citing References tab

Select Secondary Sources from the drop down menu

 

 

 

 

4. Select Commentary from the Content types filter menu on the left of screen

 

General search for definition or meaning across all materials:

(character* OR compris* OR defin* OR describ* OR discuss* OR element* OR expla* OR interpret* OR mean* OR phras*) /15 SearchTerm

Tip:  Filter or refine results list by document type (act, case, article, dictionary, encyclopaedia), jurisdiction, etc

 

Examples

(character* OR compris* OR defin* OR describ* OR discuss* OR element* OR expla* OR interpret* OR mean* OR phras*) /15 slaver*

(character* OR compris* OR defin* OR describ* OR discuss* OR element* OR expla* OR interpret* OR mean* OR phras*) /15 "vicarious liability"

Source Definitions From Legislation

Lexis+ 

Westlaw Australia 

Step 1:

From Advanced Search, select Legislation

Step 1:

Select  Content type - Legislation

 

Step 2:

Navigate down to Defined Terms

Step 2:

Select Advanced Search

Step 3:

Add the term

Step 3:

Navigate down to Defined Terms

Step 4:

Select Search

Step 4:

Add the term

Step 5:

Narrow results by using filters located on the left

Step 5:

Select Search

 

Step 6:

Narrow results by using filters located to the left of screen

Alternatively

Select the highlighted hyperlink in the legislation results to go directly to the section in the document.

 

Option 2: General Search

Step 1:

In the search box on the home page, type

(character! OR compris! OR defin! OR describ! OR discuss! OR element! OR expla! OR interpret! OR mean! OR phras!) /15 SearchWord

 

Step 2:

From the Results page,
select Legislation from the Content types menu on the left of screen

OR

View All beside the Legislation group

 

Source Definitions From Case Law

AustLII

Jade

Lexis+ 

Westlaw Australia 

Option 1: LawCite

1. Select LawCite (located at the far right on the red band)

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1. Select Jade Browser tab

Select Legislation Collection

Select By legislature

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Step 1: From the Explore pod, select LawNow Plus Legislation Citator

 

Option 1: Global Search:

1. Search by Act title and section number in the global search box

Example:
Legal Profession Act 2008 282

WAIT

 

 

2. Complete Legislation Considered fields

Tip: Do not include a designation abbreviation - just the number)

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2. Select Western Australian Legislation - Acts (WALegAct)

Navigate to the relevant Act

 

Step 2: Enter the Legislation Title and Provision Name/Number, then click Search.

For example, in Legislation Title enter “Legal Profession Act 2008”, and in Provision Number enter “282”. 

2. From the drop down suggestions, select the linked section title 

Option 2: NoteUp

1. Select the relevant jurisdiction from the black ribbon on the AustLII home page

Example: WA

3. Navigate to relevant section

Select section title

 

Step 3. Click the result.

 

3. Select Cases from the Citing References tab

_________________________

2. Type the Act title and section number (number only) in the search box (located at the top right of screen)

Example: Legal Profession Act 2008 282

4. Select relevant citations

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Option 2: General Search:

1. Search by Act title in double inverted commas and section number to be within 10 words of Act title

e.g. 
"Legal Profession Act 2008" /10 282

3. Select the magnifying glass Search icon

Tip: Sign up for Jade Professional using your Murdoch student email address @student.murdoch.edu.au

(it is free)

 

2. Select Cases

Option 1: Select View All Cases

Option 2: Select Cases from the Content types menu

_________________________

4. Select the hyperlinked Act and Section from the Results list

from the Western Australian Current Acts database

 

 

Option 3: Advanced Search

1. Select  Content type - Cases

5. Select NoteUp References from the menu on the right of screen    

2. Select Advanced Search

6. Sort Results by database to easily identify cases    

3. Complete Legislation Title and Provision Number fields

Tip: Do not include a designation abbreviation
- just the number

undefined

_________________________

 

Spelling

Spelling should comply with the latest edition of the Macquarie Dictionary.
Where alternative spellings are given, the first-listed should be used unless there is a good reason to do otherwise.

where a word is not included in the Macquarie Dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary should be used.

This will generally mean the British English spelling is preferred to American variants.

Hyphenation should comply with the latest edition of the Macquarie Dictionary.
If a compound expression does not appear in the Macquarie Dictionary, it should be hyphenated (not spelled as one word).

Extrinsic Materials

Extrinsic materials provide guidance on the meaning behind, and the intended purposes of, an Act of Parliament.

Extrinsic materials are materials which do not form part of the Act itself, but assist in the interpretation of the Act.

These materials can include:

Click on the links above for instructions for sourcing specific Extrinsic Materials.


Understand an Act

Bill + EM + 2RS + Reports = Act

Australian Encyclopedia of Forms & Precedents contains non-litigious precedents and forms for areas such as property, commercial and corporations law

Civil Procedure WA includes the Supreme Court Forms, District Court Forms

 

LexisNexis Practical Guidance resources contain precedents for use in:

  • Sales practices
  • Regulatory framework
  • Contracting
  • Consumer credit
  • Advertising, promotions and marketing
  • Misleading and deceptive conduct
  • E-Commerce
  • Warranties and consumer guarantees
Example for Accessing Forms in Lexis+

Step 1: In the general search box, enter consent /3 notice and click Search, so that the word consent appears within 3 words of notice.
This will give results for consent notice, as well as notice of consent

Step 2: Select AU Forms & Precedents

Step 3: Click Jurisdiction and select Western Australia

Step 4: Select [6435] FORM 87 CONSENT NOTICE

This record provides links to:

  • Rules of the Supreme Court 1971
  • Word version of Consent Notice document

 

Commonwealth Government Media Releases Western Australian Government Media Statements

Step 1:

Access ParlInfo Advanced Search

Step 1:

Access Media Statement website

Step 2:

Add search terms

Step 2:

Browse recent Statements or
Select Advanced Search

Step 3:

Scroll down Parliamentary Collections to Media

Step 3:

Select Advanced Search

Step 4:

Check Press Releases

Step 4:

Add search terms and filters

Step 5:

Search

Option:

Subscribe to Media Statement Email Notifications

 

Media Releases

Search string for Internet Browser (Google / Bing / Duck Duck Go):

(media or press or publicity) (statement or release) search word

General search instructions:

  • select a region
  • select a date range
  • include blogs and online sources
  • ProQuest - main Australian newspapers, focus is on American and European publications

 

See also:
Australian Government Media Releases
Western Australian Government Media Statements
 

ProQuest

Westlaw Australia 

Step 1:

Prepare for Advanced Search

Search terms (key words) should be added one by one to each row on the Advanced Search page.

As you will have more than two words for your search, you will need to add a row to the search page:

Select  ⊕ Add a row 
(located below text boxes)

 

 

Step 1:

Select Content Type
News & Current Awareness

 

Step 2:

Create a Search

1: Enter search terms, one on each line

Example:
     legal*
     recreation*
     cannabis OR marijuana

Note the use of the Truncation Operator *

e.g. legal* will search for:
    •    legal
    •    legalise
    •    legalisation
    •    legalize

2: Refine search

Limit to:
   ☑ Full text

Publication date
   After this date…
    Complete the year 2020

Location:
   Select Look up Locations
    Find: Australia
    Select all 3 versions of Australia
    Select  Add to search

Document Type:
   Tick in the box for  ☑ News

Tip:

Refining your search by
Document type: News
includes wire feeds, blogs and newspapers.

Refining your search by
Source type: Newspaper
only includes newspapers

Step 2:

Option 1:

Search News & Current Awareness using the Search box at the top of screen

Example: 
legal! AND recreation! /10 (cannabis OR marijuana)

 

Option 2:

Select news topics from
Alert 24 or
News Bulletins

Browse 10 most recent documents

OR

Search news topics using the Search box at the top of screen

Step 3:

Select Search

 

Step 3:

Results can be filtered by:

  + Date
  + Jurisdiction
  + Publication Name 

Step 4:

Improve the Search

1:   Amend the search string 
(located at the top of the Results list)

from       
     legal* AND recreation* AND
     (cannabis OR marijuana)

to           
     legal* AND recreation* N/10
     (cannabis OR marijuana)

 

Step 5:

Select the magnifying glass for Search

 

Step 6:

Refine Search Results by:
Search within
Source type
Publication date
Publication title
Subject
Location
and more…

 

Step 7:

Further Refine Search Results 

Select these filters to further refine your search results:

Source type:   Newspapers

Publication date: April 2020
(Tip: click on the bar graph column for the month)

Publication titleThe Australian

 

 

Newspaper Alerts

Specific Newspapers
Specific Topics

Step 1:

Create a ProQuest account

 

Step 1:

Create a ProQuest account

Step 2:

Search Publications for newspaper title

Step 2:

Search Publications for newspaper title

 

Step 3:

Select Create alert

Step 3:

Select Create alert

 

Step 4:

Complete details

Step 4:

Select Create alert

 

Step 5:

Complete details

 

 

 

  • Library Search 
    Find books, ebooks, journals and newspaper articles
  • High Demand Collection
    located by the Library Entrance in Level 3
    loan period - 2 hours
    HD includes unit textbooks and essential reading material
  • How to borrow from the Library
  • Ebooks
    Our guide to accessing ebooks

 

Cannot find what you want?

If a particular book, journal article or other resource is not held in the University Library, you can request it from another library using our free services:

  • Document Delivery - allows you to request material from other libraries
  • In person - borrow books from other university libraries in Western Australia

eBook User Limits

Some ebooks have a user limit (typically 3), although the Library endeavours to buy unlimited user licences wherever possible.

This means that only three people can read the ebook at the same time.

If the Table of Contents is faded, this means that all copies are currently in use.
You will need to wait an hour or so, then revisit the ebook to see if it is available.

If you are using an ebook as a resource during exams, you should download chapters ahead of the exam time in anticipation that the ebook will be in use during the exam period.

 

You can check whether there is a user limit on the ebook.

Access the ebook using Library Search.

Read the Availability statement for the ebook:

Once you have access to the ebook, download a chapter from the Table of Contents on the landing page.

Download a chapter every few days (so you stay within the download limit), so that, by the end of semester, you will have downloaded all chapters in preparation for an open book exam.

Source ebooks instructions:


From the Library Catalogue record, click on the link to the ebook, located below the Access Online heading:

Google Scholar

Add Murdoch University as a library when you access Google Scholar and a link to our material will appear. To do this, you will need to set your Google Scholar preferences:

  1. Go to Google Scholar and select Settings
  2. Select Library Links and search for Murdoch
  3. Check the box for Murdoch University - Library Search@Murdoch
  4. Click Save Preferences

When you click a Library Search@Murdoch link in your Google Scholar search results, you will be prompted to log in using your Murdoch MAIS username and password