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IEEE - Referencing Guide

IEEE Style

About IEEE Style

IEEE Style uses a notational method of referencing when referring to a source of information within the text of a document. 

In its simplest form a citation is given in the text, consisting of a number enclosed by square brackets:

The full details of the source are given in a numerical reference list at the end of the document:


See Reference List Entries or All Examples for details on how to construct references for specific resources such as books, journals and web pages.

Important Information

Created September 2010; modified July 2019

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Style is used primarily for publications in engineering, electronics, telecommunications, computer science and information technology.

Please remember to check with your unit co-ordinator or tutor before submitting your assignments, as their style preference may vary from the guidelines presented here.

When using EndNote referencing software, please use the following output style - IEEE. For information about EndNote, please see the EndNote Guide.


This referencing guide follows the principles given in the IEEE Editorial Style Manual for Authors, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019 and the Reference Guide: IEEE Style, University of Illinois at Urbania Champaign, College of Engineering, 2009.

An additional source of information on the citation of electronic resources was Numeric Referencing, University of Wales, Swansea, 2004.

For more detailed referencing examples, see: