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MLA 8th - Referencing Guide

All Examples

Complete List of Examples

To see more information about the formats below, either click on the format headings in this list of examples or hover your cursor over the Works Cited List Entries menu and select the format you want.

Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Assignment from Another Unit (Jones) Jones, Bryan K. 2016. “The Importance of Critical Thinking.” Unpublished manuscript, BAR100: Academic Learning Skills, Murdoch University, 2016.

A-V Materials
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
DVD (Moore) Moore, Michael, writer and director. Bowling for Columbine, AV Channel, 2003.
Radio Programme (Black Soccer Heroes) "Black Soccer Heroes." Message Stick, presented by Daniel Browning, guest speaker Dr. John Maynard, ABC Radio, 9 Jun. 2006.
Sound Recording (St. Laurence Chamber Choir) St. Laurance Chamber Choir, performers. Commemoration, Ritual and Performance: The Iberian Connection: Medieval and Renaissance Music from the St Laurence Chamber Choir, directed by N. McEwan, Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney, 2005.
Television Programme (Big Fish) "Big Fish, Little Fish." Four Corners, presented by Chris Masters, ABC Television, 27 Mar. 2006.
Video Recording (Russell) Russell, Geoff, writer, producer and narrator. Tackling Bullies: An Australian Perspective, produced by Peter Wiseman, Video Classroom, 1995.
YouTube/Vimeo Video (NRK) NRK. "Medieval Helpdesk with English Subtitles." YouTube. 26 Feb. 2007,

Book Chapters
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Chapter or Article in Edited Boo

(Sweeney 58)

Sweeney, John. "The New Internationalism." Global Backlash: Citizen Initiatives in a Just World Economy, edited by Robin Broad, MacMillan Press, 2002, pp. 55-62.
Article in an Encyclopaedia


Fowler, Alastair. "Genre." International Encyclopedia of Communications, edited by Erik Barnouw, et al., Oxford UP, c1989. 4 vols.

Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Book Including Page Numbers

(Pilger 225-226)

Pilger, John. Distant Voices. Vintage, 1992.
Book: Single Author (Boyle) Boyle, Jimmy. The Pain of Confinement: Prison Diaries. Canongate, 1984.
Book: Two Authors or Editors

(Dollimore and Hall)

Dollimore, Johnathon, and Keith Hall, editors. Political Shakespeare: Essays in Cultural Materialism. 2nd ed., Cornell UP, 1994.

Book: 3 or More Authors

(MacIntosh et al.)

MacIntosh, Angus, et al. A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English. Aberdeen UP, 1987. 4 vols.
Book: Organisation as Author (Australian Copyright Council) Australian Copyright Council. Copyright for Book Publishers: A Practical Guide. ACC, 1997.
Book: Government Agency as Author (Australia. Council for the Arts.) Australia, Council for the Arts. Writing: Protocols for Producing Indigenous Australian Writing. 2nd ed., ACA, 2007.
Book: Editor, Later Edition


Newcomb, Horace, editor. Television: The Critical View. 6th ed., Oxford UP, 2000.

Conference Papers
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Conference Paper in Print


Mann, Jill. "Chaucer and the 'Woman Question.'" This Noble Craft: Proceedings of the Tenth Research Symposium of the Dutch and Belgian University Teachers of Old and Middle English and Historical Linguistics, Utrecht, 19-20 January 1989. Edited by Erik Kooper, Rodopi, 1991, pp.173-88..
Conference Paper from the Internet (Zheng et al.) Zheng, Hongyan, et al. "Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Efficacy of English Acqusition in CALL Environment." International Conference on Computer Technology and Development, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, 13-15 November 2009. Vol. 2., IEEE Computer Society, 2009, pp. 494-496. IEEE Xplore,
Conference Proceedings (Balakian and Wilhelm) Balakian, Anna, and James J. Wilhelm, editors. Proceedings of the Xth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association: New York, NY, 1982. Garland, 1985.

Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry

(Bass et al.)

Bass, Len, et al. Software Architecture in Practice. 2nd ed., Addison Wesley, 2003. Safari.

Chapter from an E-book


Tygstmp, Fredetik. "Changing Spaces: Salman Rushdie's Mapping of Post-Colonial Territories." Literary Landscapes: From Modernism to Postcolonialism. Edited by Attie de Lange, et al., Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, pp.198-213. Ebook Library.

Article from an Electronic Encyclopaedia

(Courtright and Smudde)

Courtright, Jeffrey L., and Peter M. Smudde. "Power and Public Relations." The International Encyclopedia of Communication. Edited by Wolfgang Donsbach, Blackwell Publishing, 2008. Blackwell Reference Online.

Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Journal Article from a Full Text Database (Hill 326) Hill, Thomas D. "Beowulf's Roman rites: Roman ritual and Germanic tradition." The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 325-335. Academic OneFile,
Journal Article from the Internet (Chartier) Chartier, Roger. "Everything and Nothing: The Many Lives of William Shakespeare." Journal of Early Modern Studies, vol. 5, 2016, pp. 17-26, doi:10.13128/JEMS-2279-7149-18066.

Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Image/Photograph/Artwork from a Book (Leibovitz 72) Leibovitz, Annie. Olympic Portraits. Little Brown, 1996.
Reproduction in a Book (Bedford 154) Bedford, Paddy. Dingo Dreaming. 2001. Ochre on canvas. Reproduced in McCulloch, Susan, and Emily McCulloch Childs. McCulloch's Contemporary Aboriginal Art: The Complete Guide. McCulloch & McCulloch Australian Art Books, 2008, p. 154.
Image from a Book Chapter

(Ardagna et al. Figure 1)

Ardagna, Claudio Agostino, et al. "Open-Source Solution to Secure E-Government Services." Encyclopedia of Digital Government. Edited by Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko and Matti Malkia, Idea Group Reference, 2007, pp.1300-1305. IGI Global,
Image from a Journal Article (Yeh and Xu Table 1) Yeh, Quey-Jen, and Xiaojun Xu. "The Effect of Confucian Work Ethics on Learning About Science and Technology Knowledge and Morality." Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 95, no. 1, 2010, pp. 111-128. ProQuest, doi: 10.1007/s10551-009-0352-1.
Image from a Newspaper (Leunig 24) Leunig, Michael. "Thoughts of a Baby Lying in a Child Care Centre." The Sydney Morning Herald, Jul. 27 1995, p. 24
Image from a Database (The Making of a Monologue min. 10:10) The Making of a Monologue: Robert Wilson's Hamlet. Directed by Marion Kessel, Cinema Guild, 1995, Video. Theatre in Video,
Online Artwork (Nolan) Nolan, Sydney.The Encounter, 1946, Enamel paint on composition board. National Gallery of Australia,
Online Image (Newbold) Newbold, Curtis R. Can I Use that Picture? The Terms, Laws, and Ethics for Using Copyrighted Pictures. The Visual Communication Guy, 2014,
Online Map (Google Maps) Google Maps. "The British Library, London, UK." Google, 2015,
Original Image/Artwork (Viewed in a Gallery or Collection) (Angus) Angus, James. Gorilla, Gorilla, Gorilla, 2006, Wood veneers, nylon. Art Gallery of Western Australia.

Internet Documents
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Electronic Document (Miranti et al.)

Miranti, Riyana, et al. Calling Australia Home: The Characteristics and Contributions of Australia's Migrants. NATSEM, 2010,

Government Publication (Western Australia. Office of Multicultural Interests.) Western Australia, Office of Multicultural Interests. Language Services Policy 2014 and Guidelines. OMI, 2014,
Legislation (Screen Australia Act 2008 (Cth), sec. 2) Screen Australia Act 2008 (Cth).
Whole Internet Site (Jane Austen Society of America) Jane Austen Society of North America. Austen on Film, 24 Aug. 2015,
Blog Entry (Morris) Morris, Sylvia. "Anticipating Macbeth on Film." The Shakespeare Blog, 9 Jun. 2015,

Journal Articles
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Journal Article in Print (Hallin) Hallin, Daniel C. "Sound Bite News: Television Coverage of Elections, 1968-1988." Journal of Communication, vol. 42, no.2, 1992, pp. 5-24.
Journal Article in Print Including a Page Number

(Yeh 56)

Yeh, Michelle. "The 'Cult of Poetry' in Contemporary China." Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 55, no. 1, 1996, pp. 51-80.

Newspaper Articles
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Newspaper Article in Print (Buchanan) Buchanan, Rachel. "Truth and Valour: Anzac Day, the Myth". The Sydney Morning Herald,  24 Apr. 1999, Good Weekend, pp. 43-44.
Newspaper Article from the Internet (Wakin) Wakin, Daniel J. "After Music From a Bridge, Why Not a Tower?" The New York Times,  8 Jul. 2010,
Newspaper Article from a Full Text Database (Brown) Brown, Malcolm. "Prolific Writer Was Inspired by Landscape". The Sydney Morning Herald, 17 Jun. 2010, p. 24. Factiva.

Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Podcast (Miller) Miller, Toby. Australian Citizenship, 1912: A Model for the World?, 2013 Sir Walter Murdoch Lecture. Murdoch University, 2013,
Podcast Radio Programme (Black Hole) “Black Hole Stellar feeding frenzy.” StarStuff, reported by Stuart Gary, 23 Dec. 2007, ABC News Radio,
Podcast Television Programme (Bad Borders) “Bad Borders.” VICE: Season 1, Episode 2, 2016, SBS OnDemand,

Readers/Study Guides
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Study Guide and Reader (Dillard) Dillard, Annie. “When You Write.” The Writing Life. London: Pan Books, 1990, pp. 3-21. Reprinted in Introduction to Creative Arts (EGL114) Study Guide and Reader. Murdoch University, 2004.
Reader (Vickery and Bishop) Vicary, D., and B. Bishop. "Western Psychotherapeutic Practice: Engaging Aboriginal People in Culturally Appropriate and Respectful Ways." Australian Psychologist, vol. 40, no. 1, 2005, pp. 8-19. Reprinted in Introduction to Psychology and Culture (PSY246): Unit Reader 2009. Murdoch University, 2009.

Secondary Sources
Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Secondary Source Lantolf and Thorne (qtd. in Ipek 158) Ipek, Helya. "Comparing and Contrasting First and Second Language Acquisition: Implications for Language Teachers." English Language Teaching, vol. 2, no. 2, 2009, pp. 155-63.

Material Type In Text Citation Works Cited List Entry
Unpublished Thesis (Kane) Kane, Sonia. "Acts of Coercion: Father-Daughter Relationships and the Pressure to Confess in British Women's Fiction, 1778-1814." Diss. City U of New York, 2003.
Published Thesis (Darling) Darling, Charles W. Giver of Due Regard: The Poetry of Richard Wilbur. Diss. U. of CT, 1977. Merganser Press, 1979. 
Thesis from a Full Text Database (Chew) Chew, Cynthia Mei-Li. "'It's Stupid Being a Girl!' The Tomboy Character in Selected Children’s Series Fiction." Diss. Murdoch U, 2009. Murdoch University Research Repository,