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EndNote X9 Guide

Manual Entry

Adding references manually

You may need to add a reference manually to your EndNote library if the source is only available in print or the online direct export is not available.

It is also useful to understand manual entry so that you can edit your entries.

If you are unsure of the requirements of your referencing style you should refer to Murdoch University Library's Referencing Guides before you start.

To add a new reference manually:

  • Create a new reference using either of the following methods:
    • In the toolbar, select References > New Reference
    • Click this icon:
    • Press CTRL+N
  • A New Reference window will open
  • Select the Reference Type from the drop-down menu at the top of the screen (the default is Journal Article). Different reference types display different fields.
  • NOTE: You only need to fill-in the fields required by your referencing style. See "Adding information to specific fields" to learn more.
  • Use the Enter key to go to another line within a field. Use the TAB key to move to next field.
  • Once completed, close the Reference Window by either:
    • In the toolbar, select File > Close Reference
    • Click the X symbol for the Reference Window in the top right hand corner of the window
    • Press CTRL+S 

On the Preview tab of the Reference panel, you will be able to see how the reference would look like in a document, in the referencing style of your choice.

To select your required referencing style:

  • Select the appropriate style in the drop-down menu on the left of the toolbar
  • If the style you need is not available, click ‘Select Another Style…’
    • Select the style you want to add
    • Click Choose.

To see a preview of the reference in that style:

  • Click on the Preview tab (next to the Reference tab) in the Reference panel.

Adding information to specific fields


Choose from the following ways to populate this field:

  • Enter author surname followed by a comma and their initial(s) or first name e.g. Zaltsman, C. OR Zaltsman, Charles
  • Do not use punctuation if you enter the first name followed by the surname e.g. Charles Zaltsman
  • If there is more than one author, enter each name on a new line within the Author field (use the Enter key on your keyboard to go to another line).
  • When entering Corporate authors (organisations, Government departments etc) place a comma at the end of the name so that it will appear correctly in in-text referencing e.g. "Murdoch University," or "Department of Transport,"

NB: It is important that you are consistent with entering the author's name if there is more than one reference by the same author (which is why entering full first names is preferable). Inconsistency in entering author's names can cause unwanted initials in in-text references in your document.


Enter years as four digits e.g. "1999". When appropriate, enter "in press" instead of date or "n.d." for "No Date".


When entering titles:

  • Do not use any punctuation at the end
  • Let the words wrap to the next line. Do not press Enter.
  • Capitalize as your referencing style requires.


Enter as required by your referencing style, e.g. "2nd".

Page numbers

When entering page numbers:

  • Use complete numbers (e.g. 120-128) or truncate the last page (e.g. 120-8), as your referencing style requires.
  • Do not enter commas or p. or pp.


Enter the day and month as required by your referencing style, e.g. 28 March

Labels and notes

EndNote provides several extra data fields that will not appear in the bibliography, but can be used to organise your references.

These metadata fields include:

  • Labels - free text ‘tags’ which you can use for your own purposes (Note: These are different from keywords, which are provided by the journal)
  • Notes - use this for more detailed notes (searchable)
  • Research Notes - useful for copying and pasting direct quotations (not searchable)

Enter the day and month as required by your referencing style, e.g. 28 March


  • You do not need to fill-in all fields in a Reference Type.
  • Use the Research Notes field to store any direct quotes you'd like to use in your document. Place an * before and after the text so that it is searchable using EndNote's search function at a later date.
  • Fields such as abstract, notes, keywords, label are for your benefit and will not appear in the bibliography you generate.
  • Use capitalization as recommended by the referencing style you prefer. Do not  include special bibliographic formatting or punctuation except for commas or colons within a field. EndNote can adjust capitalization in titles of books and articles, but generally you should type your data as you want it produced in your bibliography.
  • Preview your reference for spelling and capitalisation using the Tab pane at the bottom of the screen. The Tab pane can be hidden or shown by clicking the Hide Tab pane / Show Tab pane option in the bottom right hand corner of the EndNote window.


This guide has been based, with permission, on the guide created by the King Edward Memorial Hospital Library.