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Chicago - Referencing Guide

Social Media


Social media could include a personal communication such as an email, text or SnapChat message; a Facebook page or entry; a blog; an Instagram or Twitter account; blog, Twitter or Instagram posts; a YouTube, Vimeo or Ted Talk video; an app or a game.

 Chicago style does not provide specific guidance on citing generative AI software, such as ChatGPT.

Content from generative AI is a nonrecoverable source, as it can't be retrieved by the reader of your work.

Therefore, we recommend using the format for personal communications to cite any content generated by ChatGPT.

Note: It is likely that the Information about using and referencing ChatGPT and other generative AI tools in assignments and publications will continue to be updated. We recommend checking this page regularly to keep up with any changes.

Comments are not included in the reference list; they should be cited in the text in reference to the related post - see Chicago Manual of Style (2017) sections 15.51 & 15.52.

References for social media entries begin with the same information that would be provided for an electronic document.

Additional information must be provided (depending on the type of social media) to correctly identify the media you have accessed and the date and time of entries and comments.

Please note that the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (2017) provides some examples for referencing social media materials in sections 15.51 & 15.52, pp. 916-917.


Standard format for citation

Creator, A. A. Year. "Title of entry." Title or Publisher (as appropriate), Month Day, Year, Time (if applicable). Internet address.


Email, Text or SnapChat message

These types of material are unpublished personal communications and are not included in the reference list because they do not contain recoverable data. Cite personal communications in the text only.

They are not given formal parenthetical references in the text of an essay or assignment, instead references to this form of material are usually run into the text.

Give the title, given name or initials as well as the surname of the communicator and provide as exact a date as possible:

Professor Visser gave his reasons for closing the laboratory in an e-mail message to the author on January 16, 2004. The reasons given were...


In a text message to the author on February 12, 2017, Dr A.C. Miller stated that ...

Blog post

Tudor, Ken. 2015. "Protecting Pets in Abusive Human Relationships." The Daily Vet (blog), June 9, 2015.

Facebook page

National Library of Australia. 2017. "National Library of Australia's Facebook Page." Facebook, August 28, 2017.

Facebook post

Murdoch University Library. 2017. "Poet Speak." Facebook, October 26, 2017.

Twitter tweet

Kruszelnicki, Karl (@DoctorKarl). 2017. "Dr Karl Twitter post." Twitter, February 19, 2017, 9:34 a.m.

YouTube/Vimeo/Ted Talk video

NRK. 2007. "Medieval Helpdesk with English Subtitles." Uploaded on February 26, 2007. YouTube video, 2:44 min.

Setrakian, Lara. 2017. "3 Ways to Fix a Broken News Industry." Uploaded in January, 2017. Ted Talks TEDNYC video, 8:37 min. broken_news_industry#t-521404.

Instagram post

Murdoch University Library. 2017. "24/7 Refurbishment." Instagram photo, November 29, 2017.


StudentVIP. 2017. Lost on Campus.


Persson, Markus, and Jens Bergensten. 2011. Minecraft, October, 2011. Mojang Synergies AB.

See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, books, social media and web pages.