The American Psychological Association (APA) published the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association in 2020.
This guide to the 6th edition is no longer being updated and will be withdrawn on June 25, 2021.
For current information on APA style, all students should use our APA Referencing Guide.
For information specifically about the 6th edition (2010), please refer to the manual.
There are two parts to referencing: the citations within the text of your paper and the reference list at the end of your paper.
The APA referencing style is an "author-date" style, so the citation in the text consists of the author(s) and year of publication given wholly or partly in round brackets.
Use only the surname of the author(s) followed by a comma and the year of publication. Include page, chapter or section numbers if you need to be specific, for example if you are quoting, paraphrasing or summarising:
No distinction is made between books, journal articles, internet documents or other formats except for electronic documents that do not provide page numbers. In this case use the paragraph number, if available, with the abbreviation para.
The full details of the source are given in a reference list at the end of the document:
Reference list entries contain all the information that is required to follow up your source. Reference lists in APA are arranged alphabetically by author.
The 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020) has been published and our APA - Referencing Guide has been updated to comply with the 7th edition.
Only continuing students who have already commenced theses or other major works should continue to use this APA 6th - Referencing Guide, which will no longer be updated and unpublished on June 25, 2021.
Created February 2010; modified July 2019
Please remember to check with your unit co-ordinator or tutor before submitting your assignments, as their style preference may vary from the guidelines presented here.
When using EndNote referencing software, please use the following output style - APA 6th. For information about EndNote, please see the EndNote Guide.
This referencing guide follows the principles and examples given in the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010).