Created December 2010; modified July 2012
Please use the tabs across the top to navigate your way to further information and examples.
Please note: There have been a number of major changes in the Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition including changes to:
- Formatting of book chapter titles
- Formatting of journal article titles
- The requirement for a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) in the citation of electronic sources when available
- The ceasing of use of access dates for electronic documents
Please remember to check with your unit co-ordinator or tutor before submitting your assignments, as their style preference may vary from the guidelines presented here.
This LibGuide follows the principles and examples given in the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (2010).
About Chicago Style
There are two parts to referencing: the citations within the text of your paper and the reference list at the end of your paper.
Chicago style is an "author-date" system, so the citation in the text consists of the author(s) name and year of publication given wholly or partly in round brackets.
Use only the surname of the author(s) and the year of publication. Include page, chapter or section numbers, preceded by a comma, if you need to be specific:
When citing in the text, no distinction is made between books, journal articles, internet documents or other formats except for electronic documents that do not provide page numbers. In this case use the paragraph number, if available, with the abbreviation par.
The full details of the source are given in a reference list at the end of the document:
Reference list entries contain all the information that someone needs to follow up your source. Reference lists in Chciago are arranged alphabetically by the primary author's surname.
Reference list entries vary depending upon the format of the source of your information. See Reference Formats or All Examples for details on how to construct references for specific resources such as books, journals and web pages.